brahmarAkSasa m. a kind of evil demon , the ghost of a Bra1hman who led an unholy life Mn. MBh. &c. ; a species of plant L. ;
(%{I}
) f. N. of one of the 9 Samidhs Gr2ihya1s.
karAla mfn. opening wide , cleaving asunder , gaping (as a wound) Mr2icch. Pan5cat. R. &c. ; N. of Durga1 Ma1lati1m. ; of a
procuress Hit. ; (%{I})
f. one of the seven tongues and nine Samidhs of Agni Mun2d2Up. Gr2ihya1s. ; a sword ; (%{am}) n. a sort of
basil Car. ; a kind of Ocimum L.
kravyAda mf(%{A})n. (Pa1n2. 3-2 , 69 Ka1s3.) consuming flesh or corpses (as Agni) MBh. i , 932 Gr2ihya1s. i , 11 Tithya1d. ;
m. a carnivorous animal , beast of prey MBh. i , 115 , 24 ; a lion L. ; a hawk L. ; a goblin , Ra1kshasa W. ; the fire of the funeral
pile W. ; N. of a metallic substance Bhpr. iv , 30 ; (%{A}) f.
N. of one of the nine Samidhs Gr2ihya1s. i , 27 ; (%{As}) m. pl.N. of a
class of Manes VP. ; of a people VarBr2S. xiv , 18 (v.l. %{-vyA7khya}).
mAraNa n. killing , slaying , slaughter , death , destruction MaitrS. Mn. Hariv. &c. (%{-Nam@praAp} , to suffer death) ; a
magical ceremony having for its object the destruction of an enemy (also %{-karman} and %{-kRtya} n.) Ra1matUp. Pan5car. ;
(scil-. %{astra}) , `" slayer "'N. of a partic. mystical weapon R. ; calcination Cat. ; a kind of poison (cf. %{maraNa}) ;
(%{I}) f. `"
slayer "'N. of one of the 9 Samidhs Gr2ihya1s.
raudra or %{raudra4} mf(%{A} or %{I})n. (fr. %{rudra}) relating or belonging to or coming from Rudra or the Rudras ,
Rudra-like , violent , impetuous , fierce , wild (%{am} ind.) RV. &c. &c. ; bringing or betokening misfortune , inauspicious R. Var. ;
m. a descendant of Rudra MBh. ; a worshipper of Rudra W. ; (pl. , or sg. with %{gaNa}) a class of evil spirits Hariv. ; (scil.
%{rasa}) the sentiment of wrath or fury Sa1h. Prata1p. ; N. of Yama L. ; the cold season of the year , winter L. ; a partic. Ketu
VarBr2S. ; N. of the 54th year of the Jupiter cycle of 60 years ib. ; (pl.) N. of a people MBh. ; (also n.) heat , warmth , sunshine L.
; (also n. and %{I} f.) N. of the Nakshatra A1rdra1 when under Rudra VarBr2S.
; (%{I}) f. N. of Gauri1 L. ; one of the 9 Samidhs
Gr2ihya1s.
; a partic. S3akti Hcat. ; (in music.) a partic. S3ruti Sam2gi1t. ; a partic. Mu1rchana1 ib. ; a species of creeper L. ; N. of
the Comms. on the Tattva-cinta1man2i-di1dhiti and the Nya1ya-siddha7nta-mukta7vali1 by Rudra Bhat2t2a7ca1rya ; (with
%{megha-mAlA} and %{zAnti}) of two older wks. ; n. savageness , fierceness , formidableness Katha1s. Sus3r. ; N. of a Lin3ga
Cat. ; of various Sa1mans A1rshBr.
samidh mfn. igniting , flaming , burning RV. ; f. firewood , fuel , a log of wood , faggot , grass &c. employed as fuel (7 Samidhs ,
or sometimes 3 X 7 are mentioned , as well as 7 Yonis , 7 flames &c.) RV. &c. &c. ; kindling , flaming RV. VS. S3Br. ;
%{-samid-AdhAna} S3rS.

spRzya mfn. to be touched or felt , tangible , sensible MBh. Hariv. &c. ; to be taken in possession or appropriated Ra1jat. ;
(%{A}) f. N. of one of the Samidhs (q.v.) Ka1tyS3r. Sch.
sthUlajaGghA f. N. of one of the 9 Samidhs Gr2ihya1s.
vajrahasta (%{va4jra-}) mfn. `" thunderbolt-handed "' , wielding a thñthunderbolt (said of Indra , Agni , the Maruts) RV. ; m.
N. of S3iva S3ivag. ; (%{A}) f. N. of one of the nine Samidhs Gr2ihya1s. ; of a Buddhist goddess W.
yamadUta m. YñYama's messenger or minister (employed to bring departed spirits to YñYama's judgment-seat , and thence
to their final destination) AV. Pa1rGr2. &c. ; a crow (as boding evil or death) MW. ; pl. N. of a race or family Hariv. ; (%{I}) f. N.
of one of the 9 Samidhs
yoganidrA f. `" meditation-sleep "' , a state of half medñmeditation half sleep (which admits of the full exercise of the mental powers ; it is
peculiar to devotees) , light sleep , (esp.) the s
leep of Vishn2u at the end of a Yuga , VñVishn2u's Sleep personified as a goddess and said to be
a form of Durga1 MBh. Ragh. &c. ; (accord. to others) the great sleep of Brahma1 during the period between the annihilation and
reproduction of the universe MW.
yogin mfn. joined or connected with , relating to , accompanied by , possessed of (comp.) Ka1tyS3r. MBh. Hariv. ; being in conjunction
with (e.g. %{candra-y-}) Ma1rkP. ; possessed of superhuman powers W. ; m. a follower of the Yoga system , a Yogin (usually called
Yogi1) or contemplative saint , devotee , ascetic MaitrUp. Bhag. &c. (cf. RTL. 87) ; a magician , conjurer W. [858,1] ; a partic. mixed caste
Cat. (v.l. %{yuGgin}) ; an orange tree L. ; natron , alkali L. ; N. of Ya1jn5avalkya Cat. ; of Arjuna L. ; of
Vishn2u MBh. ; of S3iva L. ; of a
Buddha L. ; (%{inI}) f. see next.
yogIndra m. id. Katha1s. ; N. of Ya1jn5avalkya Ya1jn5. ; of Va1lmi1ki Ba1lar.
yoginI f. a female demon or any being endowed with magical power , a fairy , witch , sorceress (represented as eight in number and as
created by
Durga1 and attendant on her or on S3iva ; sometimes 60 , 64 or 65 are enumerated) Hariv. Katha1s. &c. (cf. RTL. 188 , 189) ;
N. of
Durga1 L. ; (with Ta1ntrikas) a partic. S3akti ; (with Buddhists) a woman representing any goddess who is the object of adoration.
yogamaya mf(%{I})n. resulting from self-cñconcentration or Yoga MBh. Pan5car. BhP. ; m. N. of Vishn2u Pan5car. ; %{-jJAna} n.
knowledge derived from self-cñconcentration or meditation Hariv.
yogapati m. `" Yoga-lord "'N. of Vishn2u Pan5car.
yogezvara m. a master in magical art (said of a Veta1la) Katha1s. ; a master or adept in the Yoga MBh. Hariv. Pan5cat. &c. ; a deity , the
object of devout contemplation W. ;
N. of Kr2ishn2a MW. ; of Ya1jn5avalkya Cat. ; of a son of Deva-hotra BhP. ; of a
Brahma-ra1kshasa Katha1s. ; of various authors and learned men Cat. &c. ; of wk. ; (%{I}) f. a fairy Ra1jat. Katha1s. ; a mistress or adept
in the Yoga Katha1s. ; a form of
Durga1 Hcat. ; a species of plant Bhpr. ; N. of a goddess Cat. ; of a Vidya1-dhari1 Katha1s. ; %{-tIrtha}
n. N. of a Ti1rtha Cat. ; %{-tva} n. mastery of the YñYoga MBh. BhP. ; %{-paddhati} f. %{-mantra} m. N. of wks.
yogAnta (in comp.) or f. (scil. %{gati}) N. of the 7 divisions into which (accord. to Para1s3ara) the orbit of Mercury is divided VarBr2S.
yogAntikA f. (scil. %{gati}) N. of the 7 divisions into which (accord. to Para1s3ara) the orbit of Mercury is divided VarBr2S.
bodhana mf(%{I})n. causing to awake or expand (a flower) , arousing , exciting R. Hariv. Sus3r. ; enlightening , teaching , instructing (cf.
%{bAla-
bodhinI}) ; m. the planet Mercury W. ; N. of a mountain VP. ; (%{I}) f. intellect , knowledge L. ; long pepper L. ; =
%{bodha-vAsara} PadmaP. ; a partic. S3akti Hcat. ; n. waking , being awake Ka1tyS3r. Sus3r. ; perceiving , understanding Ragh. ; causing
to wake , awakening , arousing MBh. R. &c. ; causing (a spell) to take effect , Cat [734,3] ; calling forth a perfume , burning incense L. ;
causing to perceive or understand Sa1h. ; instructing , teaching , informing Hariv. Ka1v. ; denoting , indicating , signifying Sa1h. Pa1n2. Sch. ;
`" the awaking of Durga1 "'N. of a festival on the 9th day of the dark half of the month Bha1dra Col.
budhadina n. BñBhat2t2o7tpala's (or the planet Mercury's) day , Wednesday Cat.
budhatAta m. BñBhat2t2o7tpala's (or the planet Mercury's) father , the moon L.


kAla 1 mf(%{I} Pa1n2. 4-1 , 42)n. (fr. 3. %{kal}?) , black , of a dark colour , dark-blue MBh. R. &c. ; m. a black or dark-blue colour L. ;
the black part of the eye Sus3r. ; the Indian cuckoo L. ; the poisonous serpent Coluber Na1ga (= %{kAlasarpa}) Vet. ; the plant Cassia
Sophora L. ; a red kind of Plumbago L. ; the resin of the plant Shorea robusta L. ; the planet Saturn
one of the seven tongues or flames of fire Mun2d2Up. i , 2 , 4 ; a form of Durga1 MBh. iv , 195 Hariv. Kum. ; one of the Ma1tr2is or divine
mothers L. ;
kRSNa 1 mf(%{A4})n. black , dark , dark-blue (opposed to %{zveta4} , %{zukla4} , %{ro4hita} , and %{aruNa4}) RV. AV. &c. ;
wicked , evil Vop. vii , 82 ; m. (with or without %{pakSa}) the dark half of the lunar month from full to new moon Mn. Ya1jn5. Bhag. Sus3r.
; the fourth or Kali-yuga L. ; (%{kR4SNas}) m. black (the colour) or dark-blue (which is often confounded with black by the Hindu1s) L. ;
the antelope RV. x , 94 , 5 VS. TS. S3Br. BhP. ;
of Durga1 MBh. iv , 184 ; of one of the seven tongues of fire L. Sch. ; of one of the mothers in Skanda's retinue MBh. ix , 2640 ;
Shiksha  is one of the six Vedangas, treating the traditional Hindu science of phonetics and phonology of Sanskrit.
Its aim is the teaching of the correct pronunciation of the Vedic hymns and mantras. The oldest phonetic textbooks are the Pratishakyas
(pr�tiś�khya, a vrddhi abstract from Sanskrit prati-ś�kh�), describing pronunciation and intonation of Sanskrit, as well as
the Sanskrit rules of sandhi (word combination) specific to individual schools or Shakhas of the Vedas
The Shiksha Texts and the Pratishakhyas led to great clarity in understanding the surface structure of language. For clarity of
pronunciation, they propose breaking up the large Vedic compounds into stems, prefixes, and suffixes. Certain styles of recitation
(p�ṭha), such as the jaṭ�p�ṭha, involved switching syllables, repeating the last word of a line at the beginning of the next,
and other permutations. In the process, a considerable amount of morphology is discussed, particularly regarding the combination of
sequential sounds, which leads to the modalities of sandhi. An even more important discovery recorded in the Pratishakhya texts
(particularly the Samaveda Pratishakhya, which is claimed to be the earliest[1]), is an organization of the stop consonant sounds into a
5x5 varga or square:
   
ka   kha ga  gha   na
  ca   cha  ja   jha   na                                Sparsa : Stop - Ka to Ma - they are 25
  ta   tha   da  dha  na                                Antastha : Approximant
  ta   tha   da  dha  na                                 include syllables ya, ra, la and va
  pa  pha   ba  bha ma                                Usman: Sibilant Å›a, sha, sa and ha.
in which difference between sounds is preserved whether you recite it horizontally or vertically. It was extended and completed with
fricatives and sibilants, semi-vowels, and vowels, and was eventually codified into the Brahmi alphabet, which is one of the most
systematic sound-to-writing mappings. Scholar Frits Staal has commented, "Mendelejev's Periodic system of elements, the varga
system was the result of centuries of analysis. In the course of that development, the basic concepts of phonology were discovered and
defined.[2]"
The Varga system and the Pratishakshyas, contributions of the Shiksha texts, are elaborate systems which deal with the generation and
classification of sound. According to the old tradition[which?], sound is generated when four conditions are satisfied: a ground or base;
an electromagnetic force; a gravitational force implying the existence of other nearby bodies or particles; and space for the bodies to
expand. The middle two parameters generate vibration in the bodies. Depending upon the magnitude of these parameters, there are
304 types of sounds, out of which 12 types are within human audible range. The lowest of these is called sphota, and the highest is
called mahaghanarava.
The Br�hmī script is named after the Vedic script. Shukla Yajurveda Pratishakhya (8-25) calls the letters of the alphabet Brahma
Rashi[citation needed], meaning Universal letter unit. From this, the name Brahmi originated for the script.
Traditionally syllables (not letters) in Sanskrit are called Akshara, meaning "imperishable (entity)": "atoms" of speech, as it were. These
aksharas are classified mainly into two types:[3]
• Svara (pratyahara aC) : Vowel
• Vyanjana (pratyahara haL) : Consonant
Svara aksharas are also known as prana akshara; i.e., they are main sounds in speech, without which speech is not possible. P�ṇini
referred to svara as ac pratyahara. Later they became known as ac Akshara.
Vyanjana means embellishment, i.e., consonants are used as embellishment in order to yield sonorant vowels. They are also known as
Prani akshara; that is, they are like a body to which life (svara) is added. P�ṇini's name for vyanjana was Hal Pratyahara, which
were later referred to as Hal akshara.
Vyanjana aksharas are divided into three types:
•
o Sparsa : Stop  
spRzya mfn. to be touched or felt , tangible , sensible MBh. Hariv. &c. ; to be taken in possession or appropriated Ra1jat. ; (%{A}) f.
N. of one of the Samidhs (q.v.) Ka1tyS3r. Sch.
o Antastha : Approximant
o Usman: Sibilant
Sparsa aksharas include syllables from Ka to Ma; they are 25 in number. Antastha aksharas include syllables ya, ra, la and va. Ushman
aksharas include śa, sha, sa and ha.
It was said that in Sanskrit a vowel can be pronounced in 18 ways (3x2x3), based on timing, manner, and accent of pronunciation.
Morae
Each vowel can be classified into three types based on the duration of pronunciation (morae):
• Hrasva : Short vowel, Eka-m�tra
•
Dirgha : Long vowel, Dvi-matra
• Pluta : Prolonged vowel, Tri-m�tra (pluti)
We see that each vowel can be pronounced in three ways according to the duration of articulation. ×. The unit of time is a m�tra
(approx. 0.4 second).
Nasality
Each vowel can be further classified into two types based on the manner of pronunciation:
Mukha : Oral (open)
N�sika : Nasal (all vowels are considered phonemically oral)
Pitch accent[edit]
Main article: Vedic accent
Each vowel can also be classified into three types, that is, pronounced in three ways, based on accent of articulation. This feature was
lost in Classical Sanskrit, but used in reciting Vedic & Upanishadic hymns and mantras.
Ud�tta : high pitch
Anud�tta : low pitch
Svarita : falling pitch
   Agni is the first word of the first hymn of the Rigveda:                   page continues to the right >
there are seven tongues and nine Samidhs of Agni Mun2d2Up. Gr2ihya1s. ;
Seven rays of light emanate from his body. One of his names is Saptajihva, "having seven tongues".Another one of his epithets is Abhimani
(from Sanskrit: abhi towards + the verbal root man to think, reflect upon) meaning dignified, proud; longing for, thinking
gRhya 3 mfn. (fr. %{gRha4}) belonging to a house , domestic (said of an Agni) TS. v MaitrS. AitBr. viii , 10 , 9 Gobh. &c. (said of a
series of ceremonies relating to family or domestic affairs , such as marriages , births &c. , and treated of in the Gr2ihya-su1tras , q.v.) ;
living in houses , domesticated (as animals) L. ; not free , dependent , (%{a-} neg.) Bhat2t2. vi , 61 ; m. the domestic Agni S3a1n3khGr2.
v , 2 , 5 ; = %{-sUtra} ; (%{A}) f. domestic rites and the rules relating to them Gr2ihya1s.
16 divine Matrka
16 seven tongues and nine Samidhs of Agni Mun2d2Up. Gr2ihya1s.
Seven on the bottom nine on top or mAtRkA f. a mother (also fig. = source , origin) Ka1v.
Katha1s. Pur. ; a divine mother (cf. under %{mAtR}) RTL. 188 ; N. of partic. diagrams (written
in characters to which a magical power is ascribed ; also the alphabet so employed ; prob. only
the 14 vowels with Anusva1ra and Visarga were originally so called after the
16 divine
magical) Ra1matUp. Pan5car. ; any alphabet Hcat. ; 16
brahmahRdaya m. n. the star Capella Su1ryas.
Abhoga 1 m. winding , curving , curve , crease MBh. R. &c. ; a serpent RV. vii , 94 , 12 ; the
expanded hood of the Cobra Capella (used by Varun2a as his umbrella) MBh. Hcar. ; circuit ,
circumference , environs , extension , fulness , expanse S3ak. Bhartr2. &c. ; variety ,
multifariousness Bhartr2. ; effort , pains L. ; (for 2. %{A-bhoga} see s.v.)
svarasaMyoga m. = %{-yoga} Mr2icch. ; a song S3ak. ; the junction of vowels MW.
svarayoga m. `" sound-combination , voice Ka1d.
svargasattraprayoga m. N. of wk.
svAtiyoga m. conjunction with Sva1ti MW.
yogezvara m. a master in magical art (said of a Veta1la) Katha1s. ; a master or adept in
the Yoga MBh. Hariv. Pan5cat. &c. ; a deity , the object of devout contemplation W. ;
N. of Kr2ishn2a MW. ; of Ya1jn5avalkya Cat. ; of a son of Deva-hotra BhP. ; of a
Brahma-ra1kshasa Katha1s. ; of various authors and learned men Cat. &c. ; of wk. ;
(%{I}) f. a fairy Ra1jat. Katha1s. ; a mistress or adept in the Yoga Katha1s. ; a form of
Durga1 Hcat. ; a species of plant Bhpr. ; N. of a goddess Cat. ; of a Vidya1-dhari1
Katha1s. ; %{-tIrtha} n. N. of a Ti1rtha Cat. ; %{-tva} n. mastery of the YñYoga MBh.
BhP. ; %{-paddhati} f. %{-mantra} m. N. of wks.
Svara



Yo
ga
Durga
Durga
yogezvara
varga (accented only in Nigh.) m. (fr. %{vRj}) one who excludes or removes or averts KaushUp. ; (ifc. f. %{A}) a separate division , class , set , multitude
of similar things (animate or inanimate) , group , company , family , party , side (mostly ifc. e.g. %{catur-} , %{tri-v-} q.v. ; often pl. for sg.) Ka1tyS3r. Pra1t.
&c. ; (esp.) any series or group of words classified together (as %{manuSya-vanas-pati-v-} &c.) , or a class or series of consonants in the alphabet (seven such
classes being given , viz. %{ka-varga} , `" the class of Guttural letters %{ca-kAra-v-} , or %{ca-v-} , `" the Palatals "' [924,1] ; %{Ta-v-} `" the Cerebrals "' ;
%{ta-v-} `" the Dentals "' ; %{pa-v-} `" the Labials "' ; %{ya-v-} `" the Semivowels "' ; %{za-v-} `" the Sibilants "' , and the aspirate h cf. %{varga-dvitIya} and
%{-prathama}) Pra1t. VarBr2S. Vop. ; everything comprehended under any department or head , everything included under a category , province or sphere of.
VarBr2S. ; = %{tri-varga} (q.v.) BhP. ; a section , chapter , division of a book , (esp.) a subdivision of an Adhya1ya in the R2ig-veda (which accord. to the mere
mechanical division , contains 8 Ashtakas or 64 Adhyi1yas or 2006 Vargas ; cf. %{maNDala}) and a similar subdivision in the Br2ihad-devata1 ; (in alg.) the
square of a number Col. (e.g. %{paJca-v-} , square of five cf. %{bhinna-v-}) ;
dIrgha mf(%{A})n. (compar. %{drA4ghIyas} , superl. %{drA4ghiSTha} [qq. vv.] ; rarely %{dirghatara} [Pan5c. iv , 13/14] and %{-tama} [BhP. vii , 5 ,
44]) long (in space and time) , lofty , high , tall ; deep RV. AV. Br. &c. ; long (in prosody) Pra1t. Mn. &c. ; (%{a4m}) ind. long , for a long time (superl.
%{-atamam} BhP. iii , 1 , 37) ; m. along vowel Gobh. ii , 8 , 15 Ka1tyS3r. &c. ; a camel L. ; Saccharum Sara ; Shorea Robusta = %{utkaTa} , %{rAma-zara}
&c. L. ; a mystical N. of the letter %{a} Up. ; the 5th or 6th or 7th or 8th sign of the zodiac Jyot. ; N. of a prince of Magadha MBh. i , 4451 ; of S3iva MBh. xiii
, 1158 ; (%{A}) f. an oblong tank (cf. %{-ghikA}) R. v , 16 , 27 ; a kind of plant= %{-pattrA} L. ; a mystical N. of the letter %{n} Up. ; n. a species of grass
L. ; N. of a Sa1man A1rshBr. [Fr. %{drAgh} ; cf. also Gk. $ ; Sl. {dlu8gu8}.]
dIrgharUpa mfn. having a lñlong form , having the form of a lñlong vowel MW.
dIrghavarNa m. a lñlong vowel W.
dIrghavat ind. like a lñlong vowel W.
dIrghIbhAva m. lengthening (of a vowel) VS. Pra1t.
dIrghIbhUta lengthened (a vowel) Pa1n2. 7-4 , 72 Sch.
bahvac or mfn. (in gram.) having several vowels , polysyllabic.
bahvacka mfn. (in gram.) having several vowels , polysyllabic.
bha 2 (in gram.) N. of the weakest base of nouns (as opp. to %{pada} and %{aGga} q.v.) i.e. of the base before the vowel terminations except in strong cases , before
feminine suffixes , and before Taddhitas beginning with vowels or %{y} Pa1n2. 1-4 , 18 &c.
bhakti f. distribution , partition , separation RV. Ta1n2d2Br. &c. (cf. %{kSetra-} , %{bhaGgI-bh-}) ; a division , portion , share AitBr. ; a division of a Sa1man
(also called %{vidhi} , of which 7 or 5 are enumerated) La1t2y. [743,2] Sam2k. ; division by streaks or lines Ragh. ; a streak , line , variegated decoration Hariv.
Ka1v. ; a row , series , succession , order (%{-tyA} and %{-ti-tas} ind. in succession) RPra1t. ;
(ifc.) the being a part of (%{ajbhakteH} , `" on the part of the
vowels "')
, belonging to Siddh. &c. ; that which belongs to or is contained in anything else , an attribute Nir. Pra1t. ; predisposition (of body to any disease) Car. ;
attachment , devotion , fondness for , devotion to (with loc. , gen. or ifc.) , trust , homage , worship , piety , faith or love or devotion (as a religious principle or
means of salvation , together with %{karman} , `" works "' , and %{jJAna} , `" spiritual knowledge "' ; cf. IW. 326 RTL. 97) S3vetUp. Bhag. Ka1v. Pur. &c. ;
(ifc.) assumption of the form of Megh. 61 ; often w.r. for %{bhaGgi} or %{bhukti} ; (%{-tyA}) ind. not in the regular sense , figuratively S3am2k.
bhAvin mfn. becoming , being , existing , wont to be (often ifc.) RPra1t. Hariv. Ragh. ; about to be , future , imminent , predestined , inevitable (often used as
fut. tense of %{bhU}) MBh. Ka1v. &c. ; as one ought to be , good , able , capable (in %{a-bh-}) Hariv. ; (ifc.) being possessed of. MBh. ; attached to (e.g.
%{hari-bh-}) Vop. ; manifesting , showing , Mallin. ; furthering , blessing Hcat. (cf. %{loka-bh-}) ; worshipping ib. ; beautiful , illustrious MW.
; m. N. of every
vowel except %{a} and %{A} (prob. as `" liable to become the corresponding semivowel "') VPra1t. ;
N. of the S3u1dras in Plaksha-dvipa VP. ; (%{inI}) f. a noble or
beautiful woman MBh. Ka1v. &c. ; a wanton woman W. ; a partic. musical composition Sam2gi1t. ;
N. of one of the Ma1tr2is attending on Skanda MBh. ; of
the daughter of a Gandharva Ma1rkP.
bhAvyupadha m. (scil. %{visarjanIya}) the Visarjaniya following in the Padapa1tha after any vowel except %{a} or %{A} MW.
bhos (fr. %{bhavas} voc. of %{bhavat} q.v. ; before vowels and soft consonants %{bho} ; before hard consonants %{bhos} and %{bhoH} ; the latter form
also in pause cf. Pa1n2. 8-3 , 17 &c. ; but there is occasional confusion of these forms , esp. in later literature ; often also %{bhobhoH}.) , an interjection or voc.
particle commonly used in addressing another person or several persons = O! Ho! Hallo l , in soliloquies = alas! S3Br. &c. &c. (according to L. a particle of
sorrow and of interrogation).
bhujbhugna mfn. bent , curved , crooked , distorted A1s3vGr2. MBh. &c. ; furrowed (as the brows) Ka1vya7d. ; forced aside Prab. ; bent down , cowed ,
disheartened Katha1s.
; N. of the Sam2dhi of %{o} and , %{au} before nonlabial vowels RPra1t.
bhujaga
(fr. %{bhuja} + %{ga}) m. `" going in curves "' , a snake , serpent , serpent-demon (ifc. f. %{A}) MBh. Ka1v. &c. (%{-tva} n. MBh.) ; (%{I}) f. a
female snake , a serpent-maid MBh. Ka1v. Katha1s. ; a species of shrub L. ; N. of a river Dharmas3. ; (prob. n.) tin or lead Ka1lac.
bhujagarAja m. `" sñspecies-king "'N. of S3esha Kir. ; %{-jAya} Nom. P. %{-yate} , to become a sñspecies-king Va1s.
bhujagezvara m. `" serpent-lord "'N. of S3esha Hariv.
bhujaMga m. (fr. %{bhujam} ind. p. of %{bhuj} + %{ga}) a serpent , snake , serpent-demon Ka1v. Sus3r. ; N. of the number eight Su1ryas. ; the paramour of
a prostitute Ka1vya7d. Sa1h. ; the dissolute friend of a prince Ka1vya7d. ; any constant companion of a prince Hcar. ; a lover (see %{pRthivI-bh-}) , the keeper
of a prostitute L. ; a species of Dan2d2aka metre VarBr2S. Sch. ; N. of a man Ra1jat. ; (%{I}) f. a serpent-nymph MBh. Katha1s. ; a kind of shrub L. ; (prob.
n.) tin or lead L.
89 bhujaMgabha n. `" serpent-asterism "'N. of the Nakshatra A1s3lesha Var.
Durga
difficult of access
, citadel
stronghold and
goddess Durga.
dIrgha  long (in
space and time) ,
lofty , high , tall ;
deep RV. AV. Br.
&c. ; long vowels.

Bhogavat with long
vowel and it is fort
of Naga's.
airAvata m. (fr. %{irA-vat}) , a descendant of Ira1-vat ; N. of a Na1ga or mythical serpent AV. viii , 10 , 29 Ta1n2dyaBr. MBh.
Hariv. &c. ; `" produced from the ocean "'N. of Indra's elephant (considered as the prototype of the elephant race and the supporter
of the east quarter ;
cf. %{nAga} , which means also elephant and serpent) MBh. Ragh. Megh. &c. [234,3] ; a species of
elephant R. ii , 70 , 23 ; the tree Artocarpus Lacucha ; the orange tree L. ; N. of a particular portion of the moon's path ; of a form of
the sun VP. MBh. ; (%{as} , %{am}) m. n. a kind of rainbow MBh. Ragh. &c. ; (%{I}) f. the female of Indra's elephant ; N. of a
river MBh. ; lightning L. ; a species of fern Sus3r. ; (%{I} , %{A}) f. a particular portion of the moon's path (including the lunar
mansions Punarvasu , Pushya , and A1s3lesha) VarBr2S. ; (%{am}) n. the fruit of Artocarpus Lacucha Sus3r. ; N. of a Varsha
MBh.\

nAga m. (prob. neither fr. %{na-ga} nor fr. %{nagna}) a snake , (esp.) Coluber Naga S3Br. MBh. &c. ; (f. %{I4} Suparn2.) a
Na1ga or serpent-demon (the race of Kadru or Su-rasa1 inhabiting the waters or the city Bhoga-vati1 under the earth ; they are
supposed to have a human face with serpent-like lower extremities [see esp. Nag. v , 17 RTL. 233 &c.] ; their kings are S3esha ,
Va1suki , and Takshaka ib. 323 ; 7 or 8 of the Na1gas are particularly mentioned MBh. Ka1v. &c. ; with Buddhists they are also
represented as ordinary men MWB. 220) [533,1] ; N. of the numbers 7 (Su1ryas.) or 8 (Hcat.) ; a cruel man L. ; one of the 5 airs of
the human body (which is expelled by eructation) Veda7ntas. ; (sg. also collect.) an elephant (f. %{I} ifc. f. %{A}) Ka1v. BhP. etc. ;
bhogavat mfn. (for 2. see col. 3) furnished with windings or curves or rings , ringed , coiled (as a serpent) R. ; furnished with a hood (cf. %{mahA-
bh-}) ; a serpent or sñserpent-demon Suparn2. ; (%{atI}) f. a sñserpent-nymph MBh. ;
N. of one of the Ma1tr2is attending on Skanda ib. ; the
city of the sñserpent-demons in the subterranean regions ib. R. Hariv. RTL. 322 (also %{-gA-vatI} L.) ; the sacred river of the sñserpent-demons (or
a Tirtha in that river sacred to the sñserpent-king Va1suki) MBh.
bhogavat mfn. (for 1. see col. 2) furnished with enjoyments , having or offering eñenjoyments , delightful , happy , prosperous MBh. Hariv. BhP. ;
m. dancing , mimics L. ; N. of
Satya-bha1ma1's residence Hariv. ; (%{atI}) f. the night of the 2nd lunar day Su1ryapr. ; N. of Ujjayini in the Dva1para age
Katha1s.
; of a town Vet. ; of a Dik-kanya1 Pa1rs3van. ; of wk.
bhogavat�—stretching out full length;
As Vishnu stretched out on Sesha the serpent.
bhaGga mfn. breaking , bursting (said of the Soma) RV. ix , 61 , 13 ; bending , bowing
, stretching out (see %{karNa-}
, %{gAtra-} , %{-grIvA-bh-}) ;

abhilekhana n.
writing upon , inscribing.
abhiyogapattra n.
a petition or writing of complaint.

bhagavat 2 mfn. (for 1. see under %{bha4ga}) possessing fortune , fortunate , prosperous , happy RV. AV. Gr2S. BhP. ;
glorious , illustrious , divine , adorable , venerable AV. &c. &c. ; holy (applied to gods , demigods , and saints ae a term
of
address , either in voc. %{bhagavan} , %{bhagavas} , %{bhagos} [cf. Pa1n2. 8-3 , 1 Va1rtt. 2 Pat. , and viii , 3 , 17] f. %
{bhagavatI} m. pl. %{bhagavantaH} ; or in nom. with 3. sg. of the verb ; with Buddhists often prefixed to the titles of their
sacred writings) ; m. `" the divine or adorable one "'N. of Vishn2u-Kr2ishn2a Bhag. BhP. ; of S3iva Katha1s. ; of a Buddha or a
Bodhi-sattva or a Jina Buddh. (cf. MWB. 23) ; (%{I}) f. see below.
bharatajJa mfn. `" knowing the science of BhñBharata-varsha "' , conversant with dramatic writings and rules S3is3.

bhaumadevalipi    f. N. of a kind of writing Lalit.

bhUmikA f. earth , ground , soil Ka1s3. Katha1s. &c. ; (ifc.) a spot , place for (e.g. %{AhAra-bh-} , an eating-place Katha1s. ;
%{akSara-bh-} ,
a place i.e. a tablet for writing Ragh.) ; a story , floor Inscr. Pan5cat. (with %{gRho4pari} , the flat roof of a
house S3ukas.) ; a step , degree Yogas. ; (in dram.) an actor's part or character Vikr. Ma1lati1m. &c. ; decoration (as of an
image) L. ; preface , introduction ChUp. Sch. Ka1vya7d.

bhUrja m. a species of birch (the Bhoj tree , Betula Bhojpatra , the bark of which is used for writing on) Ka1t2h. Ka1v. Var.
&c. ; n. a leaf made of birch bark for
writing on Ka1ran2d2. ; a written deed , document , Lokapr. [Cf. Slav. {bre7za} ; Lith.
{be4rzas} ; Germ. {bircha} , {Birke} ; Eng. {birch}.]

bhUtalipi f. `" demon-writing "'N. of a partic. magical formula Cat. 1.

brahmalekha m. `" Brahma1's writing "' = %{-rekhA} RTL. 370.

lekha m. (cf. %{rekha}) a line , stroke Ma1nGr2. ; (also pl.) a writing , letter , manuscript , written document of any
kind Hariv. Ka1v. VarBr2S. &c. (cf. %{kUTa-l-}) ; a god , deity S3is3. ; =
%{Abhoga} L. ;
Abhoga 1 m. winding , curving , curve , crease MBh. R. &c. ; a serpent RV. vii , 94 , 12 ; the expanded hood of the
Cobra Capella (used by Varun2a as his umbrella) MBh. Hcar. ; circuit , circumference , environs , extension , fulness ,
expanse S3ak. Bhartr2. &c. ; variety , multifariousness Bhartr2. ; effort , pains L. ; (for 2. %{A-bhoga} see s.v.)
lekhana
mf(%{I}) n. scratching , scraping , scarifying , lancing Sus3r. ; exciting , stimulating , attenuating ib. S3a1en3gS. Bhpr.
; m. Saccharum Spontaneum (a sort of reed of which pens are made) W. ; (%{I}) f. id. L. ; an instrument for writing or
painting , reed-pen , painting-brush , pen , pencil MBh. VarBr2S. Hcat. (m.c. also %{-ni}) ; a spoon , ladle (cf. %{ghRta-I-}) ;
n. the act of scratching or scraping , lancing , scarifying Car. Sus3r. ; touching , coming in contact (said of heavenly bodies) AV.
Paris3. ; writing down , transcribing Katha1s. Pan5cat. ; an instrument for scraping or furrowing Kaus3. ;
Betula Bhojpatra (the
bark of which is used for writing) L. ;
the leaf of the palm tree (used for the same purpose) W. ; making thin , attenuating ,
reducing corpulency (see next).
bhujbhugna mfn. bent , curved , crooked , distorted A1s3vGr2. MBh. &c. ; furrowed (as the brows) Ka1vya7d. ; forced aside
Prab. ; bent down , cowed , disheartened Katha1s. ;
N. of the Sam2dhi of %{o} and , %{au} before nonlabial vowels RPra1t.
bhujaga (fr. %{bhuja} + %{ga}) m. `" going in curves "' , a snake , serpent , serpent-demon (ifc. f. %{A}) MBh. Ka1v. &c.
(%{-tva} n. MBh.) ; (%{I}) f. a female snake , a serpent-maid MBh. Ka1v. Katha1s. ; a species of shrub L. ; N. of a river
Dharmas3. ; (prob. n.) tin or lead Ka1lac.
bhujagarAja m. `" sñspecies-king "'N. of S3esha Kir. ; %{-jAya} Nom. P. %{-yate} , to become a sñspecies-king Va1s.
bhujagezvara m. `" serpent-lord "'N. of S3esha Hariv.
bhujaMga m. (fr. %{bhujam} ind. p. of %{bhuj} + %{ga}) a serpent , snake , serpent-demon Ka1v. Sus3r. ; N. of the
number eight Su1ryas. ; the paramour of a prostitute Ka1vya7d. Sa1h. ; the dissolute friend of a prince Ka1vya7d. ; any
constant companion of a prince Hcar. ; a lover (see %{pRthivI-bh-}) , the keeper of a prostitute L. ; a species of Dan2d2aka
metre VarBr2S. Sch. ; N. of a man Ra1jat. ; (%{I}) f. a serpent-nymph MBh. Katha1s. ; a kind of shrub L. ; (prob. n.) tin or
lead L.
bhujaMgabha n. `" serpent-asterism "'N. of the Nakshatra A1s3lesha Var.
AzleSa m. intimate connection , contact ; slight contact L. ; embracing , embrace ; intwining MBh. BhP. Megh. Amar.
&c. ; adherence , clinging to Nya1yam. ; (%{A4}) f. and (%{A4s}) f. pl.N. of the
seventh Nakshatra AV. TS. Sus3r.
MBh. VarBr2S.

kuzasthala
town Dva1raka1 MBh.
utsthala n. N. of an island Katha1s.
sthalIya 2 mfn. relating or belonging to dry land , terrestrial MW. ; belonging to a place , local ib. ; relating or belñbelonging to
a situation or case (in %{uddezya-vidheya-bodha-sthalIya-vicAra} m. N. of wk.)  v
salasala mf(%{A})n. (cf. %{sarira4}) flowing , surging , fluctuating , unsteady RV. AV. MaitrS. ; (%{A}) f. (in Sa1m2khya)
one of the four kinds of %{AdhyAtmikA@tuSTi} or internal acquiescence (the other three being %{ambhas} , %{ogha} , and
%{vRSTi} ; cf. %{su-pArA}) Tattvas. ; (%{am}) n. (ifc. f. %{A}) flood , surge , waves RV. AV. Br. ; (also pl.) water (acc.
with %{kR} , to offer a libation of water to [gen.] "') Kaus3. MBh. &c. ; rainwater , rain VarBr2S. ; eye-water , tears Megh. ; a
kind of wind (see %{-vAta}) ; a partic. high number , S3in3khS3r. ; a kind of metre Nida1nas.
zlakSNaka mf(%{ikA})n. (= %{zlakSNa}) slippery , smooth AV.
zlakSNana n. making slippery , smoothing , polishing Ka1tyS3r.
kRSNaka m. (g. %{sthUlA7di}) `" blackish "' , a kind of plant (perhaps black Sesamum) Kaus3. 80 ; a shortened N. for
Kr2ishn2a7jina Pa1n2. 5-3 , 82 Sch. ; (%{ikA}) f. black , black substance Ka1d. Hcar. ; a kind of bird (= %{zyAmA}) L. ;
black mustard (Sinapis ramosa) L.
alagarda m. a water-serpent (the black variety of the Cobra de Capello , Coluber Na1ga) Suparn2. Sus3r. ; (%{A}) f. a large
poisonous leech Sus3r. (cf. %{alI8-garda}.)
kAlasarpa m. the black and most venomous variety of the Cobra , Coluber Na1ga Gi1t. x , 12 Vet.
suraka mfn. = %{surA-prakAra} , %{surA-varNa} (applied to a snake) g. %{sthUlA7di}.
kAlaka 1 mfn. (Pa1n2. 5-4 , 33) dark-blue , black Lalit. ; freckled (? or `" dark "' , as with anger) Pat. ; m. a freckle (? `" black
colour "') Pat. ; the black part of the eye Sus3r. ; a water-snake L.
sthUla mf(%{A4})n. (fr. %{sthU} = %{sthA} and originally identical with %{sthUra}) large , thick , stout , massive , bulky ,
big , huge AV. &c. &c. ; coarse , gross , rough (also fig. = `" not detailed or precisely defined "' ; cf. %{yathA-sth-}) Mn. MBh.
&c. ; dense , dull , stolid , doltish , stupid , ignorant (cf. comp.) MBh. Pan5cat. ; (in phil.) gross , tangible , material (opp. to %
{sUkSma} , `" subtle "' ; cf. %{sthUla-zarIra}) ; m. Artocarpus Integrifolia L. ; N. of one of S3iva's attendants L. ; m. n. g. %
{ardharcA7di} ; (%{A}) f. Scindapsus Officinalis L. ; Cucumis Utilissimus L. ; large cardamoms L. ; n. `" the gross body "' (=
%{sthUla-z-}) Up. MBh. &c. ; sour milk , curds L. ; = %{kUTa} L. ; a heap , quantity W. ; a tent (prob. for 1. %{sthula}) ib.

sthUlajaGghA f. N. of one of the 9 Samidhs Gr2ihya1s.

samidh mfn. igniting , flaming , burning RV. ; f. firewood , fuel , a log of wood , faggot , grass &c. employed as fuel (7 Samidhs
, or sometimes 3 X 7 are mentioned , as well as 7 Yonis , 7 flames &c.) RV. &c. &c. ; kindling , flaming RV. VS. S3Br. ; %{-
samid-AdhAna} S3rS.
bhogavat mfn. (for 2. see col. 3) furnished with
windings or curves or rings , ringed , coiled (as a serpent)
R. ; furnished with a hood (cf. %{mahA-bh-}) ; a
serpent or sñserpent-demon Suparn2. ; (%{atI}) f. a
sñserpent-nymph MBh. ; N. of one of the Ma1tr2is
attending on Skanda
bhogavat      Ujjayini
indrAvaruNa %{A} m. du. Indra and
Varun2a RV. AV.
The
umbrella over Varuna's head, One is
Naga the one below Bhoga.

Abhoga 1 m. winding , curving , curve ,
crease MBh. R. &c. ; a serpent RV. vii , 94 ,
12 ; the expanded hood of the Cobra Capella
(used by
Varuna as his
umbrella
) MBh. Hcar. ; circuit ,
circumference , environs , extension , fulness ,
expanse S3ak. Bhartr2. &c. ; variety ,
multifariousness Bhartr2. ; effort , pains L. ;
(for 2. %{A-bhoga} see s.v.)
N. of KrishnaYogezvara
bhogavat
mfn. (for 1. see col. 2)
; N. of Satya-bha1ma1's
residence Hariv. ; (%{atI}) f.
the night of the 2nd lunar day
Su1ryapr. ; N. of Ujjayini in the
Dvapara age
adurga mfn. not
difficult of access ;
destitute of a
strong hold or fort.
[18,3]
durgaghAta m. or n. N. of
a fortRa1jat.
durgAkramaNa n. the
taking of a fort MW.
giridurga n. `" of
difficult access as
being surrounded by
mountains "' , a
hill-fort Mn. vii , 70
f. MBh. ; N. of a
locality Romakas.
bhogavat
#7 seal similair to glyphs found at Dholavira carved into the wall
Dholavira is Bhogavat %{nAga} , which means also elephant and serpent) MBh.
Indra (he is also regent of the east quarter , and considered one of the twelve A1dityas) Mn. R.
Sus3r. &c. ;for %{sindra} fr. %{syand} , `" to drop "' ; more probably from %{ind} , `" to drop "' q.v. ,
and connected with %{indu} above) , the god of the atmosphere and sky ; the Indian Jupiter Pluvius or
lord of rain (who in Vedic mythology reigns over the deities of the intermediate region or atmosphere ; the
plant Wrightia Antidysenterica (see %{kuTaja}) L. ; a vegetable poison L. ;
the twenty-sixth Yoga or
division of a circle on the plane of the ecliptic ; the Yoga star in the twenty-sixth Nakshatra , $ Pegasi
; the
human soul , the portion of spirit residing in the body ; night L. ; one of the nine divisions of Jambu-dvi1pa
or the known continent L. ; (%{A}) f. the wife of Indra see %{indrANI} ; N. of a plant L. ; (%{I}) f. N.
of an attendant of Devi1.

Indra teaches mankind spech Bhasa and writing Abhoga
Abhoga  m.
winding , curving ,
curve , crease
MBh. R. &c. ; a
serpent RV. vii ,
94 , 12 ; the
expanded hood of
the Cobra
Capellaused by
Varuna as his
umbrella
t
Two copper tablets to the right the top Matra is
Bhogavat bottom Bahuda. Below bhoga and Vat same
ending as the Matra right.
Nagavanshi  kings (sometimes referred to as the
Nagavanshi dynasty) were rulers in the area of the
present Chhattisgarh state from around the 11th
century CE to the 14th century.[1] A copper plate
inscription from the Gupta Period relates to the
Nagas being elevated to Kshatriya-hood.[2] The
copper plates of this period relate to the Nagas
being defeated by the Guptas; and subsequently
being married into them. One example is that of the
King Chandragupta II who married Queen Kuber
Naga. The Nagas were mentioned as a non-aryan
snake worshipping tribe of ancient India.[3]
However,
puranic legends constructed the
genealogy of the Nagavanshis as a sub-clan
of Suryavansha
also known as Sooryavamsham.
[citation needed]

The worshipers of N�ga were supposedly known
as N�g� or N�gil. Nair, Bunt and some
Rajput and Jat clans claim to be of Nagvanshi origin.
[citation needed]
Naga race in north-west India was almost exterminated by Janamejaya, the Kuru king in Arjuna's line,
who conducted the massacre of Nagas at Takshasila (Pakistan). This massacre was stopped by Astika, a
Brahmin whose mother was a Naga. The names of the principal Nagas known widely for their
achievements, and slain by Janamejaya is mentioned at (1,57). They were described to be belonging to
different Naga races:-

Takshaka's Race  :- Puchchandaka, Mandalaka, Pindasektri, Ravenaka; Uchochikha, Carava, Bhangas,
Vilwatejas, Virohana; Sili, Salakara, Muka, Sukumara, Pravepana, Mudgara, Sisuroman, Suroman and
Mahahanu. (Takshaka's son Aswasena is mentioned as belonging to the Airavata's race at (8,90). This
could mean that Takshaka's race, was a branch of Airavata's race.)

Kauravya's Race  :- Aryaka, Kundala Veni, Veniskandha, Kumarka, Vahuka, Sringavera, Dhurtaka,
Pratara and Astaka. (Kauravya's race is mentioned as a branch of Airavata's race at (1,216).

Dhritarashtra's Race :- Sankukarna, Pitharaka, Kuthara, Sukhana, and Shechaka; Purnangada,
Purnamukha, Prahasa, Sakuni, Dari, Amahatha, Kumathaka, Sushena, Vyaya, Bhairava, Mundavedanga,
Pisanga, Udraparaka, Rishabha, Vegavat, Pindaraka; Raktanga, Sarvasaranga, Samriddha, Patha and
Vasaka; Varahaka, Viranaka, Suchitra, Chitravegika, Parasara, Tarunaka, Maniskandha and Aruni.
(Dhritarashtra was Airavata's younger brother (1,3).)

Nagas, Pannagas and Uragas

Nagas were mentioned as born of Surasa and Pannagas another Naga race, was mentioned as born of
Kadru at (1,66). Pannagas and Nagas were mentioned as separate but related Naga races at (3,85).
Pannagas were mentioned to denote Nagas at (3-172,180,289) (7-142) (9,45) (12,47) (13,98) Nagas
destroyed by Arjuna at Khadavaprstha is described as Pannagas (5,124). Pannagas and Uragas were
mentioned as separate but related races at (6,65). Uragas were mentioned to denote Nagas at (1-1,172)
(3-167,179,187,223) (many other references) Uragas and Nagas were mentioned as separate but related
Naga races at (3,158) -in Yaksha territory; also at (7-160,198) At (1,172) is mentioned that Uragas
along with Yakshas, Rakshasas, Gandharvas, Pisachas and Danavas as aware of the history of Arya kings.
ananta mf(%{A})n. endless , boundless , eternal ,
infinite ; m. N. of Vishn2u ; of S3esha (the
snake-god) ; of S3esha's brother Va1suki ; of
Kr2ishn2a ;vthe 23rd lunar asterism , S3ravan2a ; a
silken cord (tied round the
right arm at a particular
festival)

                   Femal                  Male  
Bhogavat
Pegasus the constellation as Indra as the
start of India. Same dimensions as the fort
at Dholavira.
Bhogavati is mentioned as Naga capital at (3-57). The
foremost of cities which resembles the Amaravati of Deva king
Indra, is known by the name of Bhogavati. It is ruled over by
Vasuki, the king of the Nagas. Shesha, the foremost of Nagas who
is a great ascetic also dwells here (5,103). In the region south-west
to Deva territories is the city called Bhogavati that is ruled by
Vasuki, by the Naga Takshaka and also by Airavata (5,109).
In the region south-west to Deva territories is the city called

Bhogavati
that is ruled by Vasuki, by the Naga Takshaka and also
by Airavata (5,109).

Bhogavati and Kuru cities
Indraprastha, the new city of Kurus, which was also the capital of
Pandava's kingdom, is compared with
Bhogavati at (1,209). It is
interesting to note that Indrprastha was built by clearing out the
Nagas inhabited in that region, especially in the forest of Khandava.
The older name of Indraprastha was Khandavaprastha, since it was
built by clearing out the Khandava forest. Khandava forest and later
the city Indraprastha alias Khadavaprastha, falls in modern-day
Delhi.

A cross reference from Valmiki Ramayana on location of Bhogavathi
It was in the South in the Indian Ocean. Chapter 4-41 gives the
overall picture.

tatra bhogavatii naama sarpaaNaam aalayaH purii || 4-41-36
vishaala rathyaa dur.hdharSaa sarvataH parirakSitaa |
rakSitaa pannagaiH ghoraiH tiiSkNa damSTraiH mahaa viSaiH ||
4-41-37
sarpa raajo mahaaghoro yasyaam vasati vaasukiH |

36b, 37, 38a. tatra= there; vishaala rathyaa= with broad, roads;
durdharSaa= unvanquishable - city; sarvataH parirakSitaa=
everywhere, safeguarded; ghoraiH= deadly; tiiSkNa damSTraiH=
with harrowing, fangs; mahaa viSaiH= having fatal, venom;
pannagaiH rakSitaa= by [such] serpents, protected; sarpaaNaam
aalayaH= for snakes, an abode of; bhogavatii naama purii=
Bhogavati, named, city - is there; yasyaam= in which; sarpa raajaH=
serpents, king; mahaa ghoraH= highly, hazardous one; vaasukiH
vasati = Vasuki, will be dwelling.

"There is a city named Bhogavati which is an abode of the snakes. It
has broad roads and safeguarded from everywhere, and thus it
becomes an unvanquishable city. Deadly serpents with harrowing
fangs and fatal venom will be protecting it, in which the highly
hazardous king of serpents, namely Vasuki, will be dwelling.
[4-41-36b, 37. 38a]
mahezvara m. a great lord , sovereign , chief S3vetUp. MBh.
&c. (with %{tridazAnAm} , `" chief of the gods "' i.e.
Indra) ; a
god (opp. to %{prakRti}) S3vetUp. ; N. of various gods (esp.
of S3iva and of Kr2ishn2a ; pl. of the Loka-pa1las or guardians
of the world , viz. Indra , Agni , Yama and Varun2a) MBh. R.
&c. ; of a Deva-putra Lalit. ; of various authors and other men
Inscr. Siddha7ntas3. Cat. ; bdellium L. ; (%{I}) f. N. of
Durga1 Tantras. (IW. 522) ; of Da1ksha1yan2i1 in
Maha1-ka1la Cat. ; a kind of brass or bell-metal L. ; Clitoria
Ternatea L. ; %{-kara-cyutA} f. `" dropped from the hand of
S3iva "'N. of the river Kara-toya1 L. ; %{-tIrtha} m. N. of a
Sch. on R. and of another author Cat. ; %{-tva} n. supreme
lordship or dominion Up. ; %{-datta} m. N. of a merchant
HParis3.

mAhezvarI f. the Consort or Energy of S3iva (one of the
seven
divine Ma1tr2is , also =
Durga1) MBh. (cf. IW. 522) ; N. of a
river S3atr. ; a species of climbing plant L. ; %{-tantra} n. N. of
a Tantra.
n
Bhogavat
Bahuda
Bhogavat