Horse play in the Indus Valley      
                                                                                                              Daniel F. Salas
            An artifact has been found in Kabul Afghanistan that links the Indus Valley to a Buddhist and prior Vedic culture.  This artifact has the same dimensions as other Buddhist manuscripts found in Pakistan and Afghanistan. These two countries were the dominant Buddhist centers of the world around 800 AD.
   This artifact has become the center of a controversy over the obvious need to just get the artifact dated in a professional manor. Stopping this simple and important request is the unethical behavior of Steve Farmer, Michael Witzel, Wales Professor of Sanskrit at Harvard University and Richard Sproat Professor of Linguistics University of Illinois. These three scholars are using their positions to stop any one from looking at the artifact.    Their conclusions on the Kabul artifact are scientifically impossible.
        A Radiocarbon date was given by Witzel for the Kabul artifact as 2003 AD. How accurate is radiocarbon dating? For recent “BP Before present” (BP, present defined as 1950) materials it is usually as accurate to 200 year range but with older materials this range gets wider. Materials at the limit of the range that can be measured may only be dated to a 500 or 1000 year range.
           These measurable dates are prior to the standard “Before Present” (BP, present defined as 1950) because it uses a ratio of carbon prior to 1950 or the industrial revolution. The level of carbon has so drastically changed in the atmosphere it makes the standard method impossible. The only way to determine a date prior to 1950 is not radiocarbon dating by definition it is counting mass verses weight, first determine the amount of carbon in a sample then you need a detailed study of the plant absorption rate in qusestion and the amounts measured of known examples prior to 1950 and match these finding to the sample given. At best on a “Before Present” (BP, present defined as 1950) sample you have +_ 10 or 15 years error, for samples prior to 1950  it is impossible to get +_ 10 or 15. When an organism dies is start of the process and 2003 was the age given.

Steve Farmer, Richard Sproat and
Michael Witzel give a Radiocarbon date of 2003 why?
    The Kabul artifact matches two Indus humped bull Seals. The one in the middle of the first line of the artifact and the writing just ahead of it are found together on a separate seal. This conjunction and the two humped bulls the one on the left has the same glyphs as the one prior to the middle humped bull this points the author having prior knowledge of the Indus script. The forger has to have a concordance of the Indus script. The center writing of the first line is the Zebu bull seal found in Harappa in the late 1990 that is 23 years ago. Lucy Zuber Buehler writes the comparison of a manuscript in 2009 and the artifact was part of a 5 year old collection. This makes a possible range between 2009 – 5 = 2004 and 1990 the Zebu was unearthed when did it get entered into a concordance, here 2003 is a manufactured date "a lie".  
Am I to believe that this forger studies the Indus script puts all this effort in the piece but when looking around for a suitable piece of bark he uses the freshest bark of 2003 this is ridicules. Any chemical reagent used to make the artifact look older would contaminate the artifact for carbon testing. A root has graphed itself to the artifact this reminds me of the Buddhist tradition of sealing manuscripts under stupa’s if so this is a very important artifact. The forger graphs a root to a fresh “acidic” piece and not an older one so as to make the graph possible. This forger is working for these three scholars. Where is the profit in it for this forger "why".

           The Kabul artifact did not pop up by chance someone went through a lot of effort to save this key. The oldest dated birch bark manuscripts are numerous Gandh?ran Buddhist texts from approximately the 1st century CE, believed to have originated in Afghanistan , likely by the Dharmaguptaka sect.

            Steve Farmer writes The girl who wrote the thesis (Lucy Zuberbuehler on the Kabul artifact) herself has posted on the List, sending a note to me and Richard Sproat, saying that she knows it is a forgery and apologizing for all the trouble this has stirred up trouble.
              Lucy Zuberbuehler had three pictures of the artifact as her evidence of the whole thesis how can she or any one draw a conclusion of forgery off three pictures. They a have put presure on Lucy Zuberbuehler to condemn her own thesis.
Steve Farmer writes “We even know where the fake comes from. See all the messages, including the note from Asko Parpola
Here they drag in Asko Parpola the maker of the above mentioned concordance.

   Steve Farmer, (posted via Naga Ganesan) the other day. Radiocarbon dating from around 2003 of longer fake manuscripts apparently written in the same hand show that the bark is modern.
The three frustrated scholars have prejudged the entire matter and wish it to simply go away. Witzel’s latest writings on the Indus script " myths depicted on their tiny tablets indicate a complex religion and it’s *oral* literature”. The Indus Valley script that I study is a script and it has many of the same glyphs found in Mesopotamia. We should ask Witzel if those glyphs that visually parallel the ones used in Mesopotamian, could be employed for the same purpose “writing".
Harappan and Asokan Writing Prof. T.P. Verma*
      In the link above Prof. T.P. Verma relates the many associations with writing in early Indic times.The content includes the black-balling Instance of Dr. Bryan K. Wells the dissertation on Indus manuscript by  Lucy Zuberbuhler of University of Bern, the Açokan Brähmé writings, Mudrä-Räkshasa writing of the Vedic brähmaëas (srotriya aksaräëi) as the name of writing prior to Asokan Brahme.

       These three are in no way going to budge with their illogic and absolute simplistic view "myths depicted" "oral literature" what clues could led science to cut out “writing” for "oral literature" when it is obvious there is a possibility of it being so. Or is this hinting at a theory that the original inhabitants of the Indus taught the invaders those attributes they claim for the Vedic peoples? They are clearly not thinking strait and as for changing their minds on the "possibility" of the Indus script being a script they cannot because they are actively covering up that very possibility with McCarthy Era blackballing of those that have stated it is a script and the withholding of evidence to the contrary “the Kubal Manuscript”.

     For their final note they slander those that study the Indus script, of course S.Kalyanaraman would be interested in the artifact why Slander there is no respect here. Steve Farmer writes  Please note that claims that this is a real "Indus manuscript" are hitting the Web now only because of the efforts of the Hindutva propagandist (and serial pseudo-decipherer) S. Kalyanaraman. Even the author of the thesis doesn't think the manuscript is legitimate.

        Because the subject matter runs strait into the origins of many Indo-European languages, having “conclusive results” of any decipherment is impossible, short of a Rosetta stone or the Kabul artifact. Yes it's going after "these three" or just ignoring the most important Indus related object that can relate the truth, is there any other option in getting the artifact looked at? There are pages underneath the first page that may illuminate first one.

       How has the knowledge of a “Vedic s-Hindu empire” escaped the history books of the west? In India this knowledge is not lost, its history includes Indus Valley as a location and time period, but these three scholars wish to make sure that in their lifetime India will get no credit for any of the achievements of civilization that the Indus Era has brought. The Brahmans of the Indus and the Brahmans before the Indus those of the Mehrgarh
(7000–5500 BCE), studied Religion, History, math, science, astronomy, metallurgy, “writing” the cast system in early times freed a third of the people to study and learn.

              The first step towards this loss of knowledge in western history that “the three frustrated scholars” are following happened in May 330 B.C., a little over a month before Alexander the Great went after the escaped, last, Great King of the Achaemenid Persians (Darius III), he burned the king's palaces at Persepolis for reasons we will never know for sure. Especially since Alexander later regretted it, scholars and others have puzzled over what motivated such vandalism. The reasons suggested generally boil down to intoxication, policy, or revenge.
          Here is another possible reason; Alexander prided himself on his intellectual prowess, with philosophy masters as his teachers why did he burn down that library? After the taking Persepolis Greek scholars who would have been very interested to go through the library of Persepolis that legend has it contained the complete history of three prior empires. I want to point out Alexander had those scholars with him. When Alexander gets word of their finding that Greek origins are East he gets drunk, burns down the library and plans an attack of India. This was not a part of the original plan so he has to convince his men of the importance of this new mission.
          What those Greek scholars found Berossus reports the same that the Indo-European presence in Mesopotamia came in the attack on Naram-sin, Using ancient Babylonian records and texts that are lost to us, Berossus published the Babyloniaca (hereafter, History of Babylonia) in three books sometime around 290-278 BC, by the patronage of the Macedonian/Seleucid king, Antiochus I Soter (during the third year of Antiochus I, according to Diodorus Siculus). In his King list Berossos has the Medes for Gutains.
        Most linguists believe that the Guti spoke an Indo-European language. The fact that the Guti belonged to the Indo-Iranians, is confirmed by their language, which is attested mainly by personal names and king list. According to them the Guti spoke an Indo-European language, which was close to the Tokharian languages.
In 2100 BCE there was a united empire that extended from the Danube River to the east of India . The chariot historically appears around 2300BCE, same time as the destruction layer of Early Bronze Age 2 and 3, this destruction ran from Syria to the Danube river.
         Kurum 2121-2120BC was the name of a king of the Gutains and the undisputed origins of the Hindu people is Kuru the people and land and famous king, the land said to be north of the Himalaya's where the river “Bhadra” runs north to the northern ocean. Kuru was also a land or region of the Indus Valley, the  hundred Indus city's close to present day Kurukshitra. The two were called upper and lower Kuru. This was after the Mahabharata war in India were the lunar race [family of Kuru] ascends to rule over the solar race and it is the first time horse and chariot are mentioned
          The older Sintashta culture (2100–1800), formerly included within the Andronovo culture, is now considered separately, but regarded as its predecessor, and accepted as part of the wider Andronovo horizon The Andronovo culture is strongly associated with the Indo-Iranians and is often credited with the invention of the spoke-wheeled chariot around 2000 BCE.  Andronovo culture is also notable for regional advances in
        Sintashta is a site on the upper Ural River . It is famed for its grave-offerings, particularly "chariot" burials. These inhumations were in kurgans and included all or parts of animals (horse and dog) deposited into the barrow. Sintashta is often pointed to as the premier proto-Indo-Iranian site, and it is conjectured that the language spoken was still in the Proto-Indo-Iranian stage. There are similar sites "in the Volga-Ural steppe".

Naram-Sin traded with Meluhha (possibly corresponding to the Indus Valley civilization), and controlled a large portion of land along the Persian Gulf . He expanded his empire by defeating the King of Magan at the southern end of the Persian Gulf, and conquering the hill tribes to the north in the Taurus Mountains . Magan was Makran (Balochi: ?????) (pronounced [mæk'r??n]) is a semi-desert coastal strip in the south of Sindh and Balochistan, in Pakistan and Iran, along the coast of the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman.
Sanskrit Lexicon;
makara m. a kind of sea-monster, the crocodile
According to Greek historian Herodotus, Darius wanted to know more about Asia. He wished to know where the "Indus (which is the only river save one that produces crocodiles) emptied itself into the sea". He personally led  his elite forces, whose ranks were restricted to those with Persian, Mede or Elamite ancestry, to fight the invading Scythians,
Sanskrit Lexicon;
sindhupati m.lord of the flood RV. ; `" lord of Sindh "'N. of Jayad-ratha MBh.
sindhu m. and f. (prob. fr. 1 . %{sidh} "' , to go "') a river , stream (esp. the Indus , and in this sense said to be the only river regarded as m. see %{-nada} , col. 2) RV. &c. &c. ; m. flood , waters (also in the sky) RV. AV. ; ocean , sea RV. &c. &c. ; a symbolical term for the number 4 (cf. 1. %{samudra}) Gan2it. ; N. of Varun2a (as god of the ocean) MW. ;
makaravAhana m. `" having the Makara for his vehicle "'N. of Varun2a L.
makarAzva m. `" having the Makara for a horse "' , N. of Varun2a L.
sindhu   N. of Varuna (as god of the ocean) MW. ;

The Gutian were considered outsiders of Mesopotamia so there origin could not be the Zagaros for the Elamites were there and further east but considered Mesopotamia. Naram sin attacks the Indus Valley at Mohenjo Daro around 2300 BCE the grain silos are damaged and a complete change in their main staple crop start. There was a lot of writing in Mesopotamia about this time for it was their worst of times with a one hundred year war. In that writing they clearly blame Naram-Sin as the cause with his plundering and pillageing.  Naram-Sin 2254–2218 BCE, after his death the Akkadian Empire came under increasing pressure from Gutian incursions. By around 2124 BC, all Akkad was in the hands of the Gutians. The Gutians remained there for 125 years before being replaced by the Ur III state as the dominant political power.
               The origins of the word Medes are the Asvamedha (Horse-drunk) this was the greatest Vedic Sacrifice.  This Vedic ritual bears a striking resemblance to the Roman "October-equas" sacrifice (equas is Latin for horse). In the Roman ritual there was a chariot race in October. Then, the horse on the right side was speared.  The Asvamedha also had a time of the year associated with it: spring (medha).  The Hittite's had a ritual where there was a horse on the right side and a mule on the left.  The Asvamedha ends with the horse being butchered and offered as three sacrifices. In Medieval Ireland, the kings of Ulster sacrificed a mare and ate it in a very unpleasant drunken manor.  The Indic word for drunk is "medhu" the Gaulish drunk is "Meduos" and the Gaulish horse is "Epo", a Gaulish personal name is "epo-meduos" (Asvamedha).  The association with the horse on the right side and the name for the chariot Ratha; the German "right" "recht" and the French "deroit" that is similar to the association of the word "route". The Gaulish drunk "meduos" Greek "methy" Old Church Slavonic "medus" Lithuanian "medus" English "mead" can then be associated with the Iranian "Medes" of the Zagaros.
      In the first millennium BC, the term "Gutium" was used to refer to the region between the Zagros and the Tigris , also known as western Media. All tribes to the east and northeast, who often had hostile relations with the peoples of lowland Mesopotamia , were referred to as Gutian [10] or Guti. Assyrian royal annals use the term Gutians to refer to Iranian populations otherwise known as Medes and as late as the reign of Cyrus the Great of Persia, the famous general Gubaru (Gobryas) was described as the "governor of Gutium". East of Mesopotamia Elam was part of the early urbanization during the Chalcolithic period (Copper Age). The emergence of written records from around 3000 BC also parallels Mesopotamian history, where slightly earlier records have been found. In the Old Elamite period (Middle Bronze Age), Elam consisted of kingdoms on the Iranian plateau, centered in Anshan , and from the mid-2nd millennium BC, it was centered in Susa in the Khuzestan lowlands. Its culture played a crucial role in the short lived Gutian Empire of the 22nd century BC, and from the 6th century BC, during the Persian Achaemenid dynasty that succeeded Elam, when the Elamite language remained among those in official use. Elamite is generally accepted to be a language isolate.
        Was the word chariot used as a technical word for an object? This would determine when the language group started. Technical words place a marker in time thru the artifacts archaeological date. Examples are the Indo-European languages familiarity with wheeled vehicles, such as wagons and carts. This could not have happened before 4000BCE, because of the dates of their invention in archaeology. These technical terms include two words for the wheel, a word for the axle, a word for the thill or harness-pole and a verb meaning 'to ride in a vehicle'. The chariot first appears in history around 2300BCE. I looked for an association around the Indic word for chariot. The Indic or Sanskrit word for chariot is 'Ratha'. This word would have preceded the division of the Indo-Europeans. The Old Persian word for chariot 'ratha' and the Old Persian warrior 'rathestar' and in the Avesta the oldest Persian religious text 'ratho' means vehicle and chariot. In Europe , the Old Church Slavonic word 'rati' means war or battle. The Serbian word for war 'rat' and the Old Irish word for vehicle 'roth', the Irish word to attack 'ruathar' are associated. The Lithuanian words to uproot ‘rautereti’, the Greek word to ride ‘a-rith-mos’ with the Greek word to destroy ‘rhaio’ are connected. The Latin word to rage 'e-rotos' the English 'riot' and the Latin wheel and chariot 'rota', thus the Latin word to cast down 'rutus' are connected. Latin's 'rota' and the close association to 'ratha' follow Latin's staunch conservativism towards change. The German word for chivalry
'ritter-linchkeit' and the German word for Knight 'ritter' the German word to destroy 'aus-rotten' with the German word for savoir 'retten' are connected. The Celtic chariot 'ca-rros' an amalgamation of the Sanskrit 'ca' meaning both (as in the english prefix co-dependent) and ratha that became the wheel (both wheels cha-riot). The English Cha-riot is a loan word, with the Old Briton 'car'. These associations can then be grouped with the military word to 'route' an enemy; French 'deroute', Spanish 'rota' and the German 'ronde'. The first time historically the word Ratha is used as chariot is around 1650BCE with the Hurrians "rati" of the Middle East . The Hurrian's had hundreds of Vedic Sanskrit loan words. These associations and the established associations of the Indo-European groups are similar; Sanskrit 'Ayas' meaning metal shifts to bronze in Latin's 'Aes' and becomes 'Iron' in the German 'Eisen';. The Sanskrit 'father'; is 'pater' German
'vater' and Latin 'pater' this word was best saved jumping to the word 'pater-nal' in English. The Sanskrit word 'satem' means one hundred, the Latin word is 'centum' it jumps but stays within the same subject matter in the English words 'century' and 'centennial'. Many times these associations are loan words of a later date, but they can point to the Sanskrit word being saved better in a sister language.

    The next step in the loss of knowledge came when the libraries of Pakistan and Afghanistan were burned by 200 Ottoman’s. Two hundred against two nation’s means there was no resistance, they killed hundreds of thousands of unarmed Buddhist. The killing of every bald person was so thorough that after the Ottomans could not find one person that could read any of the books of their libraries in fact they really were
not even sure who it was they killed because they confused Buddhist with Hindus. The Kubal artifact has the same dimensions as other birch bark writings of Buddhist tradition. This Buddhist tradition follows right back to a Vedic tradition and the Indus Valley .

My conclusions are the explanation given for the Kabul artifact being a forger is obviously contrived, if contrived they have put their reputation on the line and no one would do this for some small or insignificant matter.

S. Kalyanaraman
A comparison of a Kabul manuscript with the Indus script (Lucy Zuberbuhler, 2009)


A comparison of a manuscript with the Indus script
(Lucy Zuberbuhler, 2009, Bachelor thesis, Univ. of Bern, Inst. of Linguistics) FULL TEXT.
See also:
Indus signs on birch bark folio in Sultani Museum, Kabul: continuous or reinvented use?
S. Kalyanaraman
Birch-bark manuscripts, fake or real? Ideas travel...on the internet

Birch-bark manuscripts
A manuscript has been discovered with Indus script: Lucy Zuberbuehler (2009)
Photograph of lower portion of mss. Media identity number SN05 1000, 7086 in: Western Himalaya Archive, Vienna, 2009 (See photo gallery - Figures 1 to 4 appended to thesis).
A debate was joined on the internet comparing the size of this manuscript with another Buddhist birch bark manuscript sheet unrolled 14 by 2 in.
Details can be read at:

Comments by Wim Borsboom (Nov. 19, 20, 2011):

If the birch bark IVC 'Kabul Manuscript' and the 5th century Buddhist Gandharan 'Los Angeles Manuscript' are comparable, and if we can go by the average length of the typical birch tree stripes (lenticels) then the dimension of one 'IVC Kabul Manuscript' folio is only approximately 2 by 3.6 inches or about the size of a business card.

If the small dimensions of the "Kabul IVC Manuscript", as I am suggesting, are correct, then it is surprising that Lucy Zuberbühler who wrote her "undergraduate thesis (!)" (Farmer*) on the Kabul IVC Manuscript, did not catch the following (OR WAS NOT questioned on her assumption of the dimensions.):
L. Z.'s bells should have been ringing, when she read in the 2001 birch-bark conservation report by S. Sayre Batton "...When Buddhist sutras are found *inside* sculptures..." In 'ancient birch-bark manuscript conservation' circles, it is known that certain MSS are often kept inside statues, sometimes even small ones.

Birch-bark mss. Separation Anxiety: The Conservation of a 5th century Buddhist Gandharan Manuscript - Susan Sayre Batton
Genetic link shown between Indian subcontinent and Mesopotamia