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ll
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Kanishka (Kanishka the Great),
(Sanskrit: कनिष�क, Bactrian language:
Κανηκι, Middle Chinese:
(Ka-ni-sak-ka > New Chinese: Jianisejia))
was a Turushka (or Turko-Tatar) emperor[1]
of the Kushan dynasty (127–151) who ruled
an empire extending from Turfan in the
Tarim Basin to Pataliputra on the
Gangetic plain and famous for his military,
political, and spiritual achievements.
His main capital was at Purushpura
(Peshawar in present-day Khyber
Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan) with regional
capitals at the location of present-day
Bagram in Afghanistan and Mathura in India.
       The artifacts below, the two on the left 100 AD. Kanishika coins the artifact on the right Indus valley 2300 BC.   This is
another example of an exact visual match of both the yogic sitting position and sitting pedestal.  Is this exact relationship below two
deferent cultures the latter coin artifact being the result of a complete assimilation of the previous culture down to the pedestals
visual similarity after 2400 years?  That is completely possible that it is a mere coincidence, but it is also a possibility that it reflects
a continues culture from the Indus valley time too today {Vedic to Hindu , Buddhist}.
This exact relationship is also found with the Kubal Manuscripts first line matching exactly three deferent Indus Valley seals.  Yes it
is possible that the professional experienced art collector bought a forgery made from copied seals.  The forger does such a good
job making the artifact look old that he did not need to use Indus seals, in fact the art dealer did not know of the Indus valley
relationship when he purchased it.  When this purchase took place looting was ramped in Afghanistan and art dealers where buying
every thing that would past the test of there experienced eye.

      Just as it is possible the artifact is a forgery it is also “possibleâ€� it is real and a simple test could verify the truth, why not
just test the artifact and put an end to all these questions and acquisitions. Stopping this simple and important request is the
unethical behavior of Steve Farmer, Michael Witzel, Wales Professor of Sanskrit at Harvard University and Richard Sproat
Professor of Linguistics University of Illinois.  The controversy over the authenticity of the artifact was created when Lucy Zuber
Buehler (2009) announced the Kabul manuscript is related to the Indus Valley at which point Michael Witzel puts pressure on Lucy
Zuber Buehler to retract her thesis. Right here if the three gentlemen above believed it to be a forgery why not have it examined, if
the lower part of the manuscript had a Dravidian connection that would have been in support their opinion 10 universities would
already radiocarbon tested and retrieved the pages underneath the first page.These three scholars are using their positions to stop
the artifact from being dated.

Both Mitra and Varuna are classified as Asuras in the Rigveda (e.g. RV 5.63.3), although they are also addressed as Devas as well
(e.g. RV 7.60.12), possibly indicating the beginning of the negative connotations carried by Asura in later times.
Namo
ll
namovAka m. uttering the `" namas "' , homage , obeisance RV. AV. &c.
namovRdh mfn. honoured by adoration RV.
namovRdha mfn. worshipping , glorifying ib.
namovRkti (%{na4-}) f. reverential cleansing (of the Barhis) RV. TS. ; %{-vat}
mfn. containing the word `"
namo-vr2ikti "' A1pS3r.
supravRkti f. = %{-vRkti} ib.
prAcInabarhis m. (nom. %{-hi} before %{R}) `" eastern light (?) "'N. of Indra
Ragh. ; of a Praja1-pati of the race of Atri1 MBh. ; of a son of Havir-dha1man (or
Havir-dha1na) and father of the 10
Pracetas MBh. Hariv. Pur. ; of a son of Manu
BhP.
vRktabarhis (%{vRkta4-}) mfn. one who has gathered and spread the sacrificial
grass (and so is prepared to receive the gods) , sacrificing or loving to sacrifice RV. ;
m. a priest L.
suvRkti f. (accord. to some for %{su-Rkti} = %{su-Rc} ; cf. %{su-vita} for %{su-
ita}) excellent praise or hymn of praise (also a form of instr.)
RV. ; mfn. singing or
praising excellently ib. ; well praised , praiseworthy , glorious ib. TS.
svavRkti (%{sva4-}) f. self-appropriation (%{-tibhis} , `" exclusively for ourselves
"')
RV. ; mfn. self-cleansing , having clñcleansing properties MW. ; f. a hymn ib.
vRkti see %{na4mo-} and %{su-vRkti4}.
savarNa (%{sa4-}) mf(%{A})n. having the same colour or appearance , similar ,
like , equal to (gen. or comp.)
RV. &c. &c. ; of the same tribe or class Mn. MBh.
&c.
; of a daughter of the Ocean and wife of Praci1na-barhis Hariv. VP. ; %{-Na-
tva} n. identity of colour with (instr.) Sus3r. ; having the same denominator
A1ryabh. ; %{-NavarNa} n. the same colour MBh. ; %{-NA7bha} mfn. similar in
colour to (comp.) Ma1rkP. ;
ghRtapRSTha (%{-ta4-}) mf(%{A})n. one whose back is brilliant with ghee (esp.
Agni and his horses) RV. AV. ; m. (hence) the fire (%{agni}) BhP. v ; N. of a son of
Priya-vrata by
Barhishmati1 (sovereign of Kraun5ca-dvi1pa) ib.
pracetas (%{pra4-}) mfn. attentive , observant , mindful , clever , wise (said of the
gods , esp. of Agni and the A1dityas)
RV. AV. VS. TS. ; happy , delighted L. ; m. N.
of Varun2a
Hariv. Ka1lid. BhP. ;  of a Praja1-pati (an ancient sage and law-giver)
Mn. i , 35 (%{-smRti} f. N. of wk.) ; of a prince (son of Duduha) Hariv. ; of a son of
Durya1man VP. ; of a son of Dur-mada BhP. ; pl. (w.r. %{prAc-}) N. of the 10 sons
of
Pra1ci1na-barhis by a daughter of Varun2a (they are the progenitors of Daksha)
MBh. Hariv. Pur.
prAcetasa mfn. relating to Varun2a (= %{pra-cetas} ; with %{AzA} f. the west)
Hcar. ; descended from Pracetas (m. patr. of Manu , Daksha , and Va1mi1ki) MBh.
Hariv. Pur. ; pl. = %{-cetas} pl. L. ; %{-stava} m. N. of VP. xiv.
barhiSmat (%{-hi4S-}) mfn. accompanied or provided with sacrificial grass RV.
Br. Mn. ; having fire or light , blazing , shining W. ; m. one who has or spreads
sñsacrificial grñgrass , a worshipper , sacrificer RV. ; N. of
Pra1ci1na-barhis
BhP. ; (%{atI}) f. N. of a wife of Priya-vrata and daughter of Vis3vakarman BhP. ;
N. of a city in Brahma7varta ib.
barhis n. (rarely m.) `" that which is plucked up "' , sacrificial grass , a bed or layer
of Kus3a grass (usually strewed over the sacrificial ground and esp. over the Vedi ,
to serve as a sacred surface on which to present the oblations , and as a seat for the
gods and for the sacrificers) RV. &c. &c. ; n. Sacrificial Grass personified (and
enumerated among the Praya1ja and Anuya1ja deities) RV. Br. ; sacrifice RV. BhP.
; ether L. ; water L. ; a kind of perfume L. ; m. fire , light , splendour L. ; Plumbago
Zeylanica L. ; N. of a man MaitrUp. ; of a son of Br2ihad-ra1ja BhP. ; pl. the
descendants of
Barhis Sam2ska1rak.

ghRtAnna mfn. one whose food is ghee (Mitra and Varun2a , Agni) RV. vi , 67 , 8
and vii , 3 , 1.
ghRtAsuti mfn. one to whom the ghee oblation belongs (Mitra and Varun2a ,
Vishn2u , Indra and Vishn2u) , i , 136 , 1 and 156 , 1 ; ii , 41 , 6 ; vi , 69 , 6.
ghRtayoni (%{-ta4-}) mfn. abiding or living in ghee (Agni , the sacrifice) RV. iii , 4
, 2 ; v , 8 , 6 VS. xxxv , 17 ; producing fertilizing rain or welfare (Mitra and Varun2a
, Vishn2u) RV. v , 68 , 2 VS. v , 38.
gArtsamada mfn. relating to Gr2itsamada AitBr. v , 2 , 4 S3a1n3khS3r. MBh. xiii ,
2006 ; m. a descendant of Gr2itsamada A1s3vS3r. ; (pl.) Pravar. i , 7 ; n. N. of a
Sa1man.
gRtsamada m. N. of a son of S3aunaka of Bhr2igu's family (formerly a son of
S3una-hotra [Su-hotra VP. BhP.] of the family of An3giras
, but by Indra's will
transferred to the
Bhr2igu family ; author of most of the hymns of RV. ii) RAnukr.
A1s3vS3r. xii , 10 , 13 A1s3vGr2. iii , 4 , 2 S3a1n3khGr2. MBh. xiii Hariv. &c. ; m.
pl.
Gr2itsamada's family RV. ii , 4 , 9 ; 19 , 8 ; 39 , 8 ; 41 , 18.

bhArgava mf(%{I})n. relating to or coming from Bhr2igu Up. MBh. &c. ;
belonging to S3ukra (cf. below) R. ; patr. fr. %{bhRgu} (pl. %{bhRgavaH}) Pa1n2.
2-4 , 65 ;
N. of S3ukra (regent of the planet Venus and preceptor of the Daityas) R.
Var. &c.
; of S3iva MBh. ; of Paras3u-ra1ma ib. ; of various men (esp. supposed
authors of hymns , viz. of It2a , Kali , Kr2itnu ,
Gr2itsamada , Cyavana , Jamad-agni
, Nema , Prayogs , Vena , Soma7huti and Syu1ma-ras3mi q.v. ; but also of many
other writers or mythological personages e.g. of It2ala , of R2ici1ka , of Dvi-gat , of
Dris3a1na , of Ma1rkan2d2eya , of Pramati &c.) Br. S3rS. MBh. RAnukr. ; a potter
MBh. (Ni1lak.) ; an astrologer L. ; an archer , a good bowman (like Paras3u-ra1ma)
L. ; an elephant L. ; pl. the descendants of Bhr2igu (properly called %{bhRgavaH} ;
cf. above) MBh. Hariv. ; N. of a people MBh. Pur. ; (%{I}) f. a female descendant
of Bhr2igu Pa1n2. 2-4 , 65 ; Bhargava's i.e. S3ukra's daughter R. ; N.
of Deva-ya1ni f. MBh. BhP. ; of Lakshmi1 L. ; of Pa1rvati1 L. ; Panicum Dactylon
and another species L. ; n. N. of various Sa1mans A1rshBr.

zaunaka m. (patr. fr. %{zunaka} g. %{bidA7di}) N. of various authors and teachers
(also with Indro7ta and Svaida1yana ; esp. of the celebrated grammarian , author of
the Rig-veda
Pra1tis3a1khya , the Br2ihad-devata1 , and various other wks. ; he is
described as the teacher of Ka1tya1yana and especially of A1svala1yana ; he is said
to have united the Ba1shkala and S3a1kala S3a1kha1s , and is sometimes identified
with the Vedic R2ishi
Gr2itsa-mada ; but according to the Vishn2u-Pura1n2a ,
S3ñS3a1kha1s was a son of
Gr2itsamada , and originated the system of four castes
; he is quoted in A1s3vS3r. APra1t. and VPra1t. ; the various legends about him are
very confused) S3Br. Up. MBh. &c. ; pl. the descendants and pupils of
S3ñS3a1kha1s Hariv. ; (%{I}) f. a wk. of S3ñS3a1kha1s (cf. %{laghu-} and %
{vRddhazaunakI}).
adhigartya (5) mfn. being on the driver's seat RV. v , 62 , 7.
agartamit (cf. %{garta-mi4t}) mfn. not buried in a hole S3Br.
agartaskandya mfn. `" not having holes to be lept over "' , not offering hindrances
S3a1n3khBr.
ajIgarta m. `" that has nothing to swallow "'N. of a R2ishi , S3unah2s3epha's father.
AjIgarti m. (g. %{bAhv-Adi} q.v.) a decendant of Aji1garta (q.v.) , S3unah2s3epa
TS. v AitBr.
bAhugarta mfn. ib. iv , 2 , 237 Sch. (%{-taka} Ka1s3. on iv , 2 , 126).
bhAgArthin mfn. desirous of a share (as of a sacrifice) R.
bhUmigarta m. a pit or hole in the earth Katha1s.
cAkragartaka mfn. fr. %{cakra-garta} Pa1n2. 4-2 , 126 Ka1s3.
garta 1 m.
a high seat , throne (of Mitra and Varun2a) RV. (`" a house "' Naigh.) ;
the seat of a war-chariot , vi , 20 , 9 ; (Nir. iii , 5) a chariot Gaut. xvi , 7 ; a table for
playing at dice Nir. iii , 5.
garta 2 m. (= %{karta4} q.v.) a hollow , hole , cave , grave S3Br. xiv S3a1n3khBr.
A1s3vGr2. S3a1n3khGr2. Kaus3. MBh. &c. ; a canal Mn. iv , 203 ; the hollow of
the loins L. ; a kind of disease L. ; N. of a country (part of
Tri-garta , in the north-
west of India
) L. (cf. Pa1n2. 4-2 , 137) [349,2] ; n. a hole , cave MBh. vii , 4953 ; (%
{A}) f. a hole , cave Pan5cat. i ; ii , 6 , 34/35 ; N. of a river S3ivaP.
gArtsamada mfn. relating to Gr2itsamada AitBr. v , 2 , 4 S3a1n3khS3r. MBh. xiii ,
2006 ; m. a descendant of Gr2itsamada A1s3vS3r. ; (pl.) Pravar. i , 7 ; n. N. of a
Sa1man.
traigarta mfn. = %{-taka} MBh. iv , 1117 ; m. (g. %{yaudheyA7di} Pa1n2. 4-1 ,
111) a Trigarta prince MBh. iv , vi Ra1jat. v ; pl. the Trigartas VarBr2S. x , xvi f. ;
(%{I}) f. (g. %{yaudheyA7di}) a Trigarta princess MBh. i.
traigartaka mfn. belonging to the Trigartas , vii , 726 ; xiv VarBr2S. iv , 24 Pa1n2.
4-2 , 124 Ka1s3.
trigarta pl. (g. %{yaudheyA7di}) N. of a people inhabiting modern Lahore AV.
Paris3. lvi , 8 MBh. (ifc. f. %{A} , vii , 688) Hariv. &c. ; sg. a T prince MBh. &c. ;
the TñTi1rtha country Das3. xi , 119 a particular method of calculation L. ; (%
{A}) f. a lascivious woman L. ; a woman L. ; a kind of cricket L. ; a pearl L. ; N. of
a town Katha1s. lxxiii , 21 ; %{-SaSTha} m. pl. a collective N. of six warrior tribes
Pa1n2. 5-3 , 116 Ka1s3.
trigartaka m. pl. the TñTi1rtha people BhP. x.
trigartika m. the TñTi1rtha country L.

vRkagarta m. or n. (?) N. of a place (%{-tIya} mfn. ) Pa1n2. 4-2 , 137 Sch.




























I believe Elamites were Dravidian as David McAlpin proposed an Elamo-Dravidian
family connecting Elamite with the Dravidian languages.
McAlpin (1975) in his study identified some similarities between Elamite and
Dravidian. He proposed that 20% of Dravidian and Elamite vocabulary are cognates
while 12% are probable cognates. He further proposed that Elamite and Dravidian
possess similar second-person pronouns and parallel case endings. They have
identical derivatives, abstract nouns, and the same verb stem+tense
marker+personal ending structure. Both have two positive tenses, a "past" and a
"non-past".
The language from Elamite to Dravidian had a long lapse of time from 3100BC to
the present day, in this time the language has taken thousands of Sanskrit loan words
and other grammatical changes.
     I believe the Asura's were Dravidian with the Semitics believed in the god Assur
that later became Ahura Masda "Ashura Medha"
and the prior god Assura , in the Creation tablet, the heavens personified
collectively were indicated by this term An-sar, "host of heaven," in
contradistinction to the earth, Ki-sar, "host of earth."
The Devas believed in the natural forces and the Asuras believed in godly forces or
host of heaven and the Devas as hosts of earth.
Ahura Mazda first appeared in the Achaemenid period (c. 550 – 330 BCE) under
Darius I's Behistun Inscription. Until Artaxerxes II (405–04 to 359–58 BCE),
Ahura Mazda was worshiped and invoked alone. With Artaxerxes II, Ahura Mazda
was invoked in a triad, with Mithra and Apam Napat.

Mazda", or rather the Avestan stem-form Mazd?-, nominative Mazdå, reflects
Proto-Iranian *Mazd?h (female). It is generally taken to be the proper name of the
spirit, and like its Sanskrit cognate medh?, means "intelligence" or "wisdom". Both
the Avestan and Sanskrit words reflect Proto-Indo-Iranian *mazdh?-, from Proto-
Indo-European *mn?sd?eh1, literally meaning "placing (*d?eh1) one's mind (*mn?-
s)", hence "wise".[2]

medhira mfn. (fr. %{medhA}) intelligent , wise (said of Varun2a , Indra , Agni &c.)
RV.
mitra 1 m. (orig. %{mit-tra} , fr. %{mith} or %{mid} ; cf. %{medin}) a friend ,
companion , associate RV. AV. (in later language mostly n.) ; N. of an A1ditya
(generally invoked together with Varun2a cf. %{mitrA-v-} , and often associated
with Aryaman q.v. ;
asura mfn. (2. %{as} Un2.) , spiritual , incorporeal , divine RV. AV. VS. ; m. a spirit
, good spirit , supreme spirit (said of Varun2a) RV. VS. ;

"Ahura" was originally an adjective meaning ahuric, characterizing a specific Indo-
Iranian entity named *asura. Although traces of this figure are still evident in the
oldest texts of both India and Iran, in both cultures the word eventually appears as
the epithet of other spirits.

The name was rendered as Ahuramazda (Old Persian) during the Achaemenid era,
Hormazd during the Parthian era, and Ohrmazd was used during the Sassanian era.
[7]
Some scholars (Kuiper. IIJ I, 1957; Zimmer.

Munchner Studien 1984:187–215) believe that Ahura Mazda originates from
*vouruna-mitra, or Vedic demigod Varuna-mitra.[21

asura mfn. (2. %{as} Un2.) , spiritual , incorporeal , divine RV. AV. VS. ; m. a spirit
, good spirit , supreme spirit (said of Varun2a) RV. VS. ; the chief of the evil spirits
RV. ii , 30 , 4 and vii , 99 , 5 ; an evil spirit , demon , ghost , opponent of the gods
RV. viii , 96 , 9 ; x AV. &c. [these Asuras are often regarded as the children of Diti
by Kas3yapa see %{daitya} ; as such they are demons of the first order in perpetual
hostility with the gods , and must not be confounded with the Ra1kshasas or imps
who animate dead bodies and disturb sacrifices] ; a N. of Ra1hu VarBr2S. &c. ; the
sun L. ; a cloud Naigh. (cf. RV. v , 83 , 6) ; (%{As}) m. pl.N. of a warrior-tribe , (g.
%{parzv-Adi} , q.v.) ; of a Vedic school ; (%{A}) f. night L. ; a zodiacal sign L. ; (%
{I}) f. a female demon , the wife of an Asura , KaushBr. (cf. %{AsurI} and %
{mahA7surI}) ; the plant Sinapis Ramosa Roxb. L. [In later Sanskr2it %{sura} has
been formed from %{asura} , as %{sita} from %{asita} q.v.]

According to the Vishnu Purana, during the Samudra manthan or "churning of the
ocean", the daityas came to be known as asuras because they rejected Varuni, the
goddess of sura "wine", while the devas accepted her and came to be known as
suras.

surA f. (ifc. also %{sura} n. ; prob. fr. 3 %{su} , `" to distil "' , and not connected
with %{sura} , `" a god "') spirituous liquor , wine (in ancient times `" a kind of beer
"') ; spirituous liquor (personified as a daughter of Varun2a produced at the churning
of the ocean) RV. &c. &c. ; water Naigh. i , 12 ; a drinking vessel L. ; a snake L
.
bala n. (or m. g. %{ardharcA7di}) power , strength , might , vigour , force , validity
RV. &c. &c. (%{balAt} , `" forcibly , against one's will , without being able to help
it "' ; also = %{bala} ibc. , or %{balena} , %{bala-tas} , with gen. or ifc. , `" by
force , by the power or on the strength or in virtue or by means of , by "') half-ripe
barley L. ; N. of a demon conquered by Indra (the brother of Vr2itra , in older texts
%{vala}) RV. &c. &c. ; oN. of a son of Varun2a and brother of Sura1 MBh. ;

vAruNa mf(%{I4})n. (fr. %{varuNa}) relating or belonging or sacred to or given by
Varun2a AV. &c. &c. (in MBh. and R. also said of partic. weapons) ; relating to the
sea or to water , marine , oceanic , aquatic MBh. Ka1v. &c. (with %{bhUta} n. an
aquatic animal) ; western (cf. under %{varuNa}) AdbhBr. R. VarBr2S. ; relating to
Va1run2i i.e. Bhr2igu MBh. ; m. an aquatic animal , fish MBh. xiii , 4142 (perhaps
also RV. ii , 38 , 8 , where %{varuNa} seems to be w.r.) ; patr. of Bhr2igu (cf. %
{vAruNi}) MBh. ; (pl.) Varun2a's children or people or warriors Hariv. ;

vAruNi 1 m. `" son of Varun2a "' patr. of various persons (esp. of Bhr2igu , Satya-
dhr2iti , Vasisht2ha , Agastya &c.) Br. RAnukr. MBh.
S3ukra was guru of the Asura's.
Kiva ; of Varun2a , Indra , the As3vins , Maruts , A1dityas ; of the Soma ; of the
Soma priest and other sacrificers; of a son of Bhr2igu and father of S3ukra MBh. i ,
2606 (cf. 3204 Bha1gP. iv , 1 , 45 and Kull. on Mn. iii , 198) ; that of S3ukra (regent
of the planet Venus and preceptor of the demons) Ra1jat. iv , 495 ; of the planet
Venus NBD. ;

rAma mf(%{A4})n. (prob. `" causing rest "' , and in most meanings fr. %{ram})
dark , dark-coloured , black (cf. %{rAtri}) AV. TA1r. N. of Varun2a. L. ; (%
{rAmaH@zakuniH} Bha1rgava , as descended from Bhr2igu ;

Assur is the name of the city, of the land ruled by the city, and of its tutelary deity.
At a late date it appears in Assyrian literature in the forms An-sar, An-sar (ki),
which form was presumably read Assur. The name of the deity is written A-sur or
As-sur, and in Neo-assyrian often shortened to As.

In the Creation tablet, the heavens personified collectively were indicated by this
term An-sar, "host of heaven," in contradistinction to the earth, Ki-sar, "host of
earth."[citation needed]

In view of this fact, it seems highly probable that the late writing An-sar for Assur
was a more or less conscious attempt on the part of the Assyrian scribes to identify
the peculiarly Assyrian deity Asur with the Creation deity An-sar. On the other
hand, there is an epithet Asir or Ashir ("overseer") applied to several gods and
particularly to the deity Asur, a fact which introduced a third element of confusion
into the discussion of the name Assur. It is probable then that there is a triple
popular etymology in the various forms of writing the name Assur; viz. A-usar, An-
sar and the stem asdru.[citation needed]

Early Bronze Age Archaeology reveals the site of the city was occupied by the
middle of the third millennium BC. This was still the Sumerian period, before the
Assyrian kingdom emerged in the 23rd to 21st century BC. The oldest remains of
the city were discovered in the foundations of the Ishtar temple, as well as at the
Old Palace. In the following Old Akkadian period, the city was ruled by kings from
Akkad. During the "Sumerian Renaissance", the city was ruled by a Sumerian
governor.

Worship of Varuna is an integral part of the evening ritual of the Sandhyavandanam,
of a dvija Hindu. However, popular worship is primarily limited to Hindus of Sindhi
origin. (See Jhulelal)

In Zoroastrianism "Varun" is one of 101 names of Ahura Mazda, meaning
"Deliverer from evil".

Varuna is not attested in the texts of the Avesta. The closest sea deity in Zoroastrian
cosmology is Vourukasha; and the nearest homonym is Varena, the four-cornered
fourteenth region of the world (Vendidad 1.17) and populated by "fiends" and
"savage, non-Aryan natives" (Vd 7.10). In Yasht 15, Haoshyangha begs for a boon
that he might smite "two-thirds of the daevas of Mazana and of the fiends of
Varena". (Yt 15.2.6) An individual who does not follow daena "[the good] religion"
is an anya-varena. (Yasna 16.2; Vd 12.21, 15.2)

Too late to be of relevance to a reconstruction of what might have happened to Indo-
Iranian *vouruna (if at all such a predecessor figure existed) in Iran is the "Varuna"
of the circa 9th century texts of Zoroastrian tradition (the so-called "Pahlavi" texts),
and in the early New Persian Shahnameh. In both cases this Varuna is a dim-witted,
easily tricked demon of "backwards"-ness, which is the literal Middle Persian
meaning of his name.
This to is oppisite
medhira mfn. (fr. %{medhA}) intelligent , wise (said of Varun2a , Indra , Agni &c.)
RV.

Assuming that Vedic Varuna is not a purely Indian development (i.e. assuming that
he derives from an Indo-Iranian *vouruna), there are several different theories on
what might have happened to Indo-Iranian *vouruna in Iran:

Nyberg (Die Religionen des alten Iran, 1938:282ff) sees Varuna represented as the
Amesha Spenta Asha Vahishta "Best Righteousness", an opinion—with extensionsâ
€”that Dumezil (Tarpeia 1947:33-113) and Widengren (Die Religionen Irans, 1965:
12-13) also follow. This theory is based on Vedic Varuna's role as the principal
protector of rta, which in Iran is represented by asha [vahishta].

Kuiper (IIJ I, 1957) proposes that none less than Ahura Mazda is a development
from an earlier dvandva *vouruna-mitra. The basis of Kuiper's proposal is that the
equivalent of Avestan mazda "wisdom" is Vedic medhira, described in Rigveda
8.6.10 as the "(revealed) insight into the cosmic order" that Varuna grants his
devotees. In Kuiper's view, Ahura Mazda is then a compound divinity in which the
propitious characteristics of *mitra negate the unfavorable qualities of *vouruna.

Zimmer (Münchner Studien 1984:187-215) observed that Varuna has the byname
(cult epithet) bhaga, an adjective that also appears in the Avesta (as baga). It may
then be that the Avestan adjective is likewise a cult epithet, the proper name having
been forgotten—a not uncommon occurrence. This may be seen to be reflected in
Artaxerxes III's invocation of ahuramazda ura mithra baga "Ahura Mazda, Mithra,
and the Baga" (Boyce, Acta Iranica 21, 1981:59-73).
aryaman , Varun2a and Mitra , also with Bhaga.

Another epithet of Vedic Varuna is asura, and there may be a remnant of Varuna in
those Gathic passages (generally presumed to have been composed by Zoroaster
himself) refers to the ahuras (plural) without (aside from Ahura Mazda) explicitly
naming them. While Ahura Mazda is uniformly "the mightiest Ahura" (e.g. Yasna
33.11), in the only two occurrences of the term where the word does not refer to
Ahura Mazda, the poet uses the expression mazdasca ahurano (Yasna 30.9, 31.4).
This phrase, generally understood to mean "the Wise [Mazda] One and the (other)
Ahuras", is in "common opinion" (so Boyce 1984:159) recognized as being archaic
and in which the other Ahuras are *mitra and *varouna. Boyce (Mithra the King
and Varuna the Master, 2001) sees this supported by the younger Avestan dvandvah
expression mithra ahura berezanta "Mithra and the High Lord", the latter being
unambiguously Ahura Berezainti, "High Lord" Apam Napat, the third member of
the Ahuric triad (Gray, Foundations, 1929:15), and with whose Indian equivalent
(also Apam Napat) Vedic Varuna is closely associated.

Agasta civilizes the south of India that were Drividian and Austroasiatic they were
Asura's converted to deva based religion.
agasti m. (according to Un2. iv , 179 fr. 2. %{a-ga} , a mountain , and %{asti} ,
thrower , 2. %{as}). N. of a R2ishi (author of several Vedic hymns ; said to have
been the son of both Mitra and Varun2a by Urvas3i1 ; to have been born in a water-
jar ; to have been of short stature
Nahusha father of Vasudeva.
Once Raajaa Nahush got the status of Indra. He got very proud of that and
considered himself the master of the Heaven. He considered even Indraanee (Indra's
wife) of his own. So he sent a message to Indraanee that he was coming to her place.
Indraanee got very upset hearing this, but was helpless. Raajaa Nahush, in his pride,
ordered Rishi to carry his Paalakee to Indranee's palace. A thousand Rishi carried
his Paalakee. One of them was Muni Agastya. Since they were not used to this kind
of work, they were walking slowly. But Nahush was in hurry to go to Indraanee's
place, so he hit Muni Agastya with his toe and said "Sarp, Sarp" (Sarp means walk
fast). As Muni Agastya heard this, he gave him Shaap - "You yourself become Sarp
and fall on Earth." On request Muni said - "When you will catch hold the mightiest
man on the Earth, and Yudhishthir will answer all your questions of ethics then you
will be released from this Shaap"

So in Mahaabhaarat times, this python could catch hold Bheem, and when
Yudhishthir came in search of his brother, he answered his questions. Then he got
released from his Shaap.

According to the Vishnu Purana, during the Samudra manthan or "churning of the
ocean", the daityas came to be known as asuras because they rejected Varuni, the
goddess of sura "wine", while the devas accepted her and came to be known as
suras.
Trigarta the three cariots of Mitra , of
Varuna and the crocodile and Agni?
ghRtAnna mfn. one whose food is ghee
(Mitra and Varun2a , Agni) RV. vi , 67 , 8
and vii , 3 , 1. gRtsamada m. N. of a son
of S3aunaka of Bhr2igu's family .
Bhrigu's father Mitra Varuna.
Above are two depictions of
"Maitreya" "Metrago Boddo") in
Kanishka's coinage.
yAdavazArdUla m. `" tiger or chief of the
YñYadu "'N. of Kr2ishn2a MBh.
bharatazArdUla m. the noblest (lit. `"
tiger "') of the BhñBharata-varsha MBh.
kuzahasta mfn. having Kus3a grass in the
hand or in the
paw (as applied to the tiger)
Hit.va 2 (only L.) m. air , wind ; the arm ;
N. of
Varun2a ; a tiger ; the ocean , water
; addressing ; reverence ;(%{A}) f. going ;
hurting ; an arrow ; weaving ; a weaver
(?). n. a sort of incantation or Mantra (of
which the object is the deity
Varun2a) ; =
%{
pra-catas} ; mfn. strong , powerful.

mitrAvaruNa vi. du. Mitra and Varun2a
RV. &c. &c. (together they uphold and
rule the earth and sky , together they
guard the world , together they promote
religious rites , avenge sin , and are the
lords of truth and light cf. under
           Mitra
varuNa m. (once in the TA1r.
%{varuNa4}) `" Allenveloping Sky "'N.
of an A1ditya (in the Veda commonly the
night as Mitra over the day , but often
celebrated separately , whereas Mitra is
rarely invoked alone.
                                 night
varuNAGgaruha m. `" VñVarun2a's
offspring or scion "' patr. of Agastya
VarBr2S.
varuNagraha m. `" seizure "' by
VñVarun2a "' , paralysis L.
varuNagrAha m. seizure by VñVarun2a
(in %{a4-v-}) TS. TBr.
varuNagRhapati (%{va4-}) mfn. having
Varun2a for a house-lord (i.e. giving
VñVarun2a precedence at a great sacrifice)
MaitrS. [921,3]
Varuna [RV. vii , 64 , 2] is called with
Mitra , %{sindhu-pati} , `" lord of the
sea or of rivers "'
mitrodaya m.
sunrise
S3a1rn3gP. ; a
friend's welfare
ib. ; N. of wk.
108
mitropasthAna n.
worship of the sun (part of
the morning Sam2dhya1
service) RTL. 406.
Vermaseren, M. J.
(1956), Corpus
inscriptionum et
monumentorum
religionis mithriacae, The
Hague: Martinus Nijhoff,
CIMRM 28, "The gods
are represented in a
sitting position on a
throne and are: Apollo-
Mithras (see below);
Tyche-Commagene;
Zeus-Ahura-Mazda;
Antiochus himself and
finally Ares-Artagnes."
Mithras is shown
beardless, wearing a
Phrygian cap,[10][11]
and was originally
seated
on a throne
alongside
other deities and the king
himself.[12] On the back
of the thrones there is an
inscription in Greek,
which includes the name
Apollo Mithras Helios in
the genitive case
Buddhist Maitreya[edit]
Main article: Maitreya
Maitreya is sometimes
represented
seated on a
throne Western-style,

and venerated both in
Mah�y�na and non-
Mah�y�na
Buddhism. Some have
speculated that
inspiration for Maitreya
may have come from the
ancient Indo-Iranian
deity Mithra. The
primary comparison
between the two
characters appears to be
the similarity of their
names. According to The
Religion of the Iranian
Peoples, "No one who
has studied the
Zoroastrian doctrine of
the Saoshyants or the
coming saviour-prophets
can fail to see their
resemblance to the
future Maitreya.[16]
Depictions of "Maitreya" "Metrago
Boddo") in Kanishka's coinage (above
and below)
Indus Valley
Mitra the day
In the Vedas, Surya is frequently referred to as "the eye of Mitra, Varuna, and Agni" (RV
1.115.1, RV 6.51.1, RV 7.63.1, WYV 4.35, WYV 7.42, WYV 13.46, AV 13.2.35). Lord
Surya is also considered to be the eye of the Virat Purusha (Lord Sri Krishna's Universal
Form).
Unfortunately it has proved beyond the grasp of all those who have studied Kushan history to actually decide
when Kanishka came to power, in which year did he become King of the Kushans. Dates have varied hugely,
57BC, 78AD, 115AD, 128AD, 134AD, 144AD, 230AD, and others. The reason it matters, is that inscriptions in
India and Central Asia are date for a hundred years in the era that Kanishka founded.
It is also possible that Maitreya
Buddha originated with the Hindu
Kalki, and that its similarities with
the Iranian Mithra have to do with
their common Indo-Iranian origin.
yAdava                                     bharata