Mudrarakshasa

         Prof. TP Verma
“Writing in the Vedic Age, Harappan and Asokan Writing�
         "We have found the word srotriya for writing in literature which definitely shows that the
Vedic priests had their own system of writing and that was known only to a very selective
group of people. This system continued till at least the Gupta period. This writing was called â
€˜srotriya aksaräëi’ in the drama ‘Mudrä-räkñasa’ of Viçäkhadatta
ascribed to the Gupta period. In the first act of the drama a disciple of Cäëakya hands him
over a ‘mudrä’ (seal) of Räksasa. This triggers a plan in latter’s mind to trap
Malayaketu an ally of Räkñasa through it. He prepares a letter in this writing of the Vedic
brähmaëas (srotriya aksaräëi) and asks his disciple to get it rewritten, because of its
obscurity, in the prevalent script of his times in the hands of Çakaöadäsa. Here CäÃ
«akya says ‘srotriya aksaras, though written with much effort, are of definite pronunciationâ
€™ (srotriyäksaräëi prayatnalikhitänyapi niyata-sphuöäni bhavati).[19] Here he
points out two features of the srotriya system of writing: i) this was written with much effort or
care, and ii) it had definite pronunciation."




The Mudrarakshasa ("The Signet of the Minister") is a historical play in Sanskrit by
Vishakhadatta that narrates the ascent of the king Chandragupta Maurya to power in
Northern India.
Mudrarakshasa is dated variously from the late 4th century[1] to the 8th century.
Chanakya's pact with lord of the Himalayas, Parvateshwar, from the Northwest ensures his
victory over Nanda.
Parvateshwar and Chandragupta plan to divide up the old possessions of Nanda. Next,
Parvateshwara dies poisoned by Nanda's daughter and his son Malayaketu succeeds him.
Malayaketu, together with Rakshasa, the last minister of Nanda, demands the inheritance of all
the old territories of the Nanda.
The drama begins when Malayaketu and his allies (the kings of Persia, Sindh and Kashmir)
are poised to attack Pataliputra (present day Patna), the capital of Chandragupta.
The outcome arrives when
Chanakya, by the use of guile, manages to attract Rakshasa to the
Maurya side, thus undoing the coalition of Malayaketu.
The historical authenticity of the Mudrarakshasa is somewhat supported by the description of
this period of history in Classical Hellenistic sources: the violent rule of the Nanda, the
usurpation of Chandragupta, the formation of the Maurya Empire.

cANakya mfn. made of chick-peas Bhpr. v , 11 , 37 ; composed by Ca1n2akya Ca1n2. ; m.
(g. %{
gargA7di}) patr. fr. Can2aka (son of Can2in HParis3. viii , 200)N. of a minister of
Candra-gupta (said to have destroyed the Nanda dynasty ; reputed author of %{-zloka} [q.
v.] , `" the Machiavelli of India "') Pan5cat. Mudr. Katha1s. v , 109 ff.
Agastya mf(%{-stI})n. (cf. Pa1n2. 4-1 , 114 and g. %{saMkAzA7di}) referring to the
R2ishi Agastya or Agasti MBh. &c. ; coming from the plant Agasti Grandiflorum Sus3r. ; m.
(g. %{
gargA7di} q.v.) a descendant of Agasti AitA1r. &c. ; (%{As}) m. pl. (cf. g. %
{kaNvA7di})
the descendants of Agasti MBh. iii , 971 ; (%{AgastI}) f. a female descendant
of Agastya
Pa1n2. 6-4 , 149 Comm.

Pulasti mfn. (perhaps fr. %{pulas} for %{puras} ; but according to Un2. iv , 179 Sch. fr. %
{pula} and 3. %{as}) wearing the hair straight or smooth VS. ; m. N. of a man g. %
{
gargA7di}.
paulastya mfn. relating to or descended from Pulasti or Pulastya R. ; m. patr. of Kubera or
Ra1van2a MBh. Hariv. R. ; of Vibhi1shan2a L. ; (pl.) the brothers of Dur-yodhana MBh. ;
(pl.)
a race of Rakshasas
paulastya mfn. relating to or descended from Pulasti or Pulastya R. ; m. patr. of Kubera or
Ra1van2a MBh. Hariv. R. ; of Vibhi1shan2a L. ; (pl.) the brothers of Dur-yodhana MBh. ;
(pl.) a race of Ra1kshasas L. ; the moon L. ; N. of an author ; (%{-smRti} f. N. of wk.) ; w.r.
for %{paurastya} Katha1s. ; (%{-stI}). f. patr. of Su1rpa-n2akha1 (the sister of Ra1van2a)
L.
saMdhyA 1 f. holding together , union , junction , juncture , (esp.) jñjuncture of day and
night , morning or evening twilight Br. Gr2S3rS. MBh. &c. ; juncture of the three divisions of
the day (morning , noon , and evening) VarBr2S. ; the religious acts performed by Bra1hmans
and twice-born men at the above three divisions of the day (acc. with %{As} or %{anv-As}
or %{upa-As} "' , to perform these Sam2dhya1 services "' , which consist of sipping water ,
repetition of prayers and mantras , especially of the Ga1yatri1 prayer ; if regarded as an act of
meditation the %{saMdhyA} may be connected with %{saM-dhyai}) Mn. R. Pur. RTL. 401
; 407 ; Twilight (esp. evening TwñTwilight , personified as a manifestation or daughter of
Brahma1 , and as the consort of S3iva , of the Sun , of Ka1la , of Pulastya , of Pu1shan &c. ,
and as the mother-in-law of Vidyut-kes3a) MBh. R. Pur. &c. ;
Pul-astya
asta 2 n. home RV. AV. S3Br. ; m. setting (as of the sun or of luminaries) VarBr2S. Su1ryas.
; `" end , death "' see %{asta-samaya} below ; the western mountain (behind which the sun is
supposed to set) MBh. R. &c. ; (in astron.) the seventh lunar mansion VarBr2. ; (%{a4stam})
ind. at home , home RV. &c.

rAkSasa mf(%{i})n. (fr. %{rakSas}) belonging to or like a Rakshas , demoniacal , infested
by demons AitBr. &c. &c. (with %{vivAha} , or %{dharma} or %{vidhi} m. `" one of the 8
forms of marriage "' , the violent seizure or rape of a girl after the defeat or destruction of her
relatives see Mn. iii , 33) ; m. a Rakshas or demon in general , an evil or malignant demon (the
Ra1kshasas are sometimes regarded as produced from Brahma1's foot , sometimes with
Ra1van2a as descendants of
Pulastya , elsewhere they are styled children of Khasa1 or Su-
rasa ; according to some they are distinguishable into 3 classes , one being of a semi-divine
benevolent nature and ranking with Yakshas &c. ; another corresponding to Titans or
relentless enemies of the gods ; and a third answering more to nocturnal demons , imps , fiends
, goblins , going about at night , haunting cemeteries , disturbing sacrifices and even devouring
human beings ; this last class is the one most commonly mentioned ; their chief place of abode
was Lan3ka1 in Ceylon ;; N. of the 30th Muhu1rta L. ; of one of the astronomical Yogas.
Col. ;; (%{I}) f. a Ra1kshasi1 or female demon MBh. Ka1v. Katha1s. ; the island of the
Ra1kshasas i.e. Lan3ka1 or Ceylon Buddh. ;
rakSaHsabha n. an assemblage or multitude of Ra1kshasas L.        rakSaHsa-bha
rakSobhAS mfn. yelling or making a noise like Ra1kshasas AitBr.
AbhASa m. speech , talking ; addressing R. ; a saying , proverb ; introduction , preface L.
AbhAsa m. splendour , light R. Veda1ntas. 195 ; colour , appearance R.
bhasaMdhi m. `" point of junction of the añasterism "' N. of the last quarters of the
añasterism A1s3lesha ,
candrAbhAsa m. an appearance in the sky like the moon , false moon W. [388,1]
candrabhAsa m. (= %{-hAsa}) `" moon-brilliant "' , a sword L. ; N. of a hero of Ka1lika1
Virac. xxx.
chandobhASA f. (g. %{Rg-ayanA7di}) the language of the Veda TPra1t. Caran2. (Devi1P.)

Bra1hman caste 49 Gotras are reckoned and supposed to be sprung from and named after
celebrated teachers , as S3a1n2d2ilya , Kas3yapa , Gautama , Bharad-va1ja , &c.) W. ;
Garga m. N. of an old sage (descendant of Bharad-va1ja and An3giras , author of the hymn
RV. vi , 47) ;

prAjApatya mf(%{A4}) is. coming or derived from Praja1-pati , relating or sacred to him
AV. &c. ; &c. ; m. a descendant of PrñPraja1-pati (patr. of Patam-ga , of Praja1vat ,
; (with or scil. %{nakSatra} or %{bha}) the asterism Rohin2i1 MBh. Var. ;
prajApati (%{-jA-}) m. `" lord of creatures "'N. of Savitr2i , Soma , Agni , Indra &c. RV.
AV. ; a divinity presiding over procreation , protector of life ib. VS. Mn. Sus3r. BhP. [658,3]
; lord of creatures , creator RV. &c. &c.
esp. to the 10 lords of created beings first created by Brahma1 , viz. Mari1ci , Atri , An3giras
,
Pulastya , Pulaka , Kratu , Vasisht2ha , Pracetas or Daksha , Bhr2igu , Na1rada [Mn.i , 34
; cf. IW. 206 n. 1] , of whom some authorities count only the first 7 , others the last 3) ;


siddhAnta m. established end , final end or aim or purpose (cf. %{sama-s-}) , (cf. %
{rAddhA7nta}) , demonstrated conclusion of an argument (or the 4th member of a syllogism
following on the refutation of the %{pUrva-pakSa} q.v.) , settled opinion or doctrine , dogma
, axiom as the following 9 , Brahma-sñsubject , Su1rya-sñsubject , Soma-sñsubject ,
Br2ihaspati-sñsubject ,
Garga-sñsubject , Na1rada-sñsubject , Para1s3ara-
sñsubject ,
Pulastya-sñsubject , Vasisht2ha-sñsubject ; or the following 5 , Sid ,
dha7ntas ,
Paulis3a-sñsubject , Romaka-sñsubject , Va1sisht2ha-sñsubject , S3aura-
sñsubject , and Paita1maha-sñsubject) VarBr2S. Sarvad. IW. 175 ;
   The seals are a Logosyllabic script, that is a script  in which the graphemes represent
morphemes, often polysyllabic morphemes, but when extended phonetically represent single
syllables thus Aksara.

All logographic scripts ever used for natural languages rely on the
rebus principle to extend a
relatively limited set of logograms: A subset of characters is used for their phonetic values,
either consonantal or syllabic. The term logosyllabary is used to emphasize the partially
phonetic nature of these scripts when the phonetic domain is the syllable. In both Ancient
Egyptian hieroglyphs and in Chinese, there has been the additional development of fusing such
phonetic elements with determinatives; such "radical and phonetic" characters make up the
bulk of the script, and both languages relegated simple rebuses to the spelling of foreign loan
words and words from non-standard dialects.
Logographic writing systems include:
• Logoconsonantal scripts
These are scripts in which the graphemes may be extended phonetically according to the
consonants of the words they represent, ignoring the vowels. For example, Egyptian used to
write both  "duck" and  "son," though it is likely that these words were not pronounced the
same apart from their consonants.
vRSabha mfn. (cf. %{RSabha}) manly , mighty , vigorous , strong (applied like %{vRSan} to animate and inanimate objects)
RV. AV. ; m. (ifc. f. %{A}) a bull (in Veda epithet of various gods , as of Indra , Br2ihas-pati , Parjanya &c. ; according to
Sa1y. = %{varSayitR} , `" a showerer of bounties , benefactor "') RV. &c. the zodiacal sign Taurus  VarBr2S.

vRSa 1 m. (prob. later form of %{vRSan}) a man , male , husband Ka1s3i1Kh. ; the male of any animal (see %{azva-v-}) ; a
bull (in older language only ifc.) Mn. MBh. &c. [1012,1] ; the zodiacal sign Taurus VarBr2S. ; a strong or potent man (one of the
four classes into which men are divided in erotic wks.) L. ; the chief of a class or anything the most excellent or preeminent or best
of its kind (e.g. %{vRSo@'GgulinAm} , the chief among fingers , the thumb ; %{vRSo@gavAm} or simply %{vRSaH} , the bull
among cows , the principal die in a game at dice ;
bArhaspatya mfn. id. AV. &c. &c. (with %{bha} or %{nakSatra} n. the constellation Pushya Su1ryas. ; with %{mAna} n. `"
Jupiter's measure "' , a method of reckoning time ib.) ; m. patr. fr. Br2ihas-pati (N. of Sam2yu , Agni , Tapur-mu1rdhan ,
Bharad-va1ja) TS. S3Br. Nir. &c. ; a pupil of BñBharad BhP. ; an infidel , materialist ib. Hariv. ; n. the Artha-sa1stra of
BñBharad , ethics morality Lalit. ; N. of various Sa1mans A1rshBr. ; %{-jyotiH-zAstra} n. or %{-tir-grantha} m. %{-tantra}
n. %{-mahiman} m. %{-muhUrta-vidhAna} , n2. , %{-saMhitA} f. %{-sUtra-TIkA} f. %{-smRti} f. N. of wks.
bha    4 (1. %{bhA}) m. N. of the planet Venus or its regent , (= %{zukra}) L. ; semblance , delusion , error L. ; (%{A4}) f.
light or a beam of lñlight , lustre , splendour MBh. Hariv. Var. &c. (cf. 2. %{bhA}) ; the shadow of a gnomon Su1ryas. ;
appearance , resemblance , likeness (ifc. ; cf. %{agni-bha} , %{guDa-bhA} , %{tantubha}) ; n. a star , planet , asterism , lunar
añasterism or mansion (and so also the number 27 ; cf. %{nakSatra}) , sign of the zodiac Gr2S. Su1ryas. Var. S3atr. &c.
bhA    2 f. (nom. prob. %{bhA4s}) light , brightness , splendour &c. (cf. f. of 4. %{bha}) VS. S3Br. ; m. the sun L. (cf. 2.
%{bhAs}).

bhan cl. 1. P. %{bha4nati} (prob. connected with %{bhA} ; cf. the later form %{bhaN}) , to sound , resound , call aloud ,
speak , declare RV. (= %{arcati} Naigh. iii , 14).

bhAs 1 cl. 1. A1. (Dha1tup. xvi , 23) / %{bhAsate} (in older language also P. %{bhA4sati} AV. &c. ; p. %{bhA4sat} RV. ; pf.
%{babhAse} MBh. ; aor. %{abhAsiSTa} Gr. ; fut. %{bhAsiSyate} , %{bhAsitA} ib.) , to shine , be bright RV. &c. &c. ; to
appear (`" as "' or `" like "' nom. or instr. of an abstract noun) , occur to the mind , be conceived or imagined become clear or
evident Sa1h. Veda7ntas. &c.: Caus %{bhAsayati} , %{-te} (aor. %{ababhAsat} and %{abIbhasat} Pa1n2. 7-4 , 3) , to make
shine , illuminate Up. MBh. &c. [756,1] ; to show , make evident , cause to appear (`" by way of. "' instr. of an abstract noun)
Bhat2t2. Cat. Desid. %{bibhAsiSate} Gr.: Intens. %{bAbhAsyate} , %{bAbhAsti} ib. (cf. %{bhA} , of which %{bhAs} is a
secondary form).
candrahAsa m. (= %{-bhAsa}) , `" moon-derider "' , a glittering scimitar Sa1h. vi , 27/28 ; Ra1van2a's sword R. vii , 16 , 43 ;
N. of a prince , JaimBha1r. lxv-lxxv ; of a hero of Ka1lika1 Virac. xxx ; n. silver L. ; (%{A}) f. = %{-puSpA} Bhpr. ; Cocculus
cordifolius L. ; N. of a Yogini1 Hcat. ; %{-tIrtha} n. N. of a Tirtha Reva1Kh.
http://www.indoeurohome.com/devamtr.html
It is redundant to write the word scimitar on a scimitar the writing appears as intellectual bravado and
not a mystical meaning.
The word sword or scimitar is Candrahasa-bhasa a conundrum of Candla-bhasa "the language of the
Candla’s is a sword".  The middle sign on the scimitar is the same as the first sign of the humped
bull.
candrahAsa m. (= %{-bhAsa}) , `" moon-derider "' , a glittering scimitar Sa1h. vi , 27/28 ;
Ra1van2a's sword R. vii , 16 , 43 ; N. of a prince , JaimBha1r. lxv-lxxv ; of a hero of Ka1lika1
Virac. xxx ; n. silver L. ; (%{A}) f. = %{-puSpA} Bhpr. ; Cocculus cordifolius L. ; N. of a Yogini1
Hcat. ; %{-tIrtha} n. N. of a Tirtha Reva1Kh
cANDAla m. = %{caND-} (Ved. Pa1n2. 5-4 , 36 Va1rtt. 1) VS. xxx , 21 S3Br. xiv Kaus3. Mn.
&c. ; the worst among (in comp. Mn. ix , 87 MBh. xii f. ; gen. Ca1n2.) ; (%{I}) f. a Can2d2a1la; the
plant Lin3gini1 L. ; (with %{bhASA}) the language of the Can2d2a1las Sa1h. vi , 163.
candrabhAsa m. (= %{-hAsa}) `" moon-brilliant "' , a sword L. ; N. of a hero of Ka1lika1 Virac. xxx.
The last sign is a highbred of the citra sign as tith morning noon and night.
bhASAcitraka n. a play on words , conundrum Ba1lar.
conundrum
    A confusing and difficult problem or question.
    A question asked for amusement, typically one with a pun in its answer; a riddle.
vRSabha mfn. (cf. %{RSabha}) manly , mighty ,
vigorous , strong (applied like %{vRSan} to animate and
inanimate objects) RV. AV. ; m.  RV. &c. the zodiacal
sign Taurus  VarBr2S.
RSabha m. (fr. 2. %{RS} Un2. ii , 123) , a bull (as
impregnating the flock ; cf. %{vRSabha} and
%{ukSan}) RV. AV. VS. ChUp. BhP. &c. ; any male
animal in general S3Br. ;
the best or most
excellent of any kind or race (cf.
%{puruSarSabha}
, &c.) MBh. R. &c. ; the
second of the seven notes of the Hindu1 gamut
(abbreviated into R2i) ;
The direction of the seal above is from right to left with the first glyph of the constellation Taurus the second is the
Bha glyph “to shineâ€�  Vrsabha   descendant of Rishabha
puruSAdya m. `" first of men "'N. of Vishn2u L. ; (with Jainas) N. of Adi-na1tha or of R2ishabha (the first Arhat of
present Avasarpin2i).
vRSa 1 m. (prob. later form of %{vRSan}) a man , male , husband Ka1s3i1Kh. ;
; the male of any animal (see %{azva-v-}) ; a bull (in older language only ifc.) Mn. MBh. &c. [1012,1] ; the
zodiacal sign Taurus VarBr2S. ;
vRSabha mfn. (cf. %{RSabha}) manly , mighty , vigorous , strong (applied like %{vRSan} to animate and
inanimate objects) RV. AV. ; m. (ifc. f. %{A}) a bull (in Veda epithet of various gods , as of Indra , Br2ihas-pati ,
Parjanya &c. ; according to Sa1y. = %{varSayitR} , `" a showerer of bounties , benefactor "') RV. &c. ; the chief
, most excellent or eminent , lord or best among (in later language mostly ifc. , or with gen.) ib. ; the zodiacal sign
Taurus VarBr2S. ; a partic. drug (described as a root brought from the Hima7laya mountains , resembling the horn
of a bull ,

ArSabha mf(%{I})n. (fr. %{RSabha}) , coming from or produced by a bull S3Br. MBh. ; m. a descendant of
R2ishabha BhP. ; (%{I}) f. N. of several constellations VP. Comm. on BhP. ; (%{am}) n. N. of a Sa1man ; a
particular metre.
RSabha m. (fr. 2. %{RS} Un2. ii , 123) , a bull (as impregnating the flock ; cf. %{vRSabha} and %{ukSan}) RV.
AV. VS. ChUp. BhP. &c. ; any male animal in general S3Br. ; the best or most excellent of any kind or race (cf. %
{puruSarSabha} , &c.) MBh. R. &c. ; the second of the seven notes of the Hindu1 gamut (abbreviated into R2i) ;
a kind of medicinal plant Sus3r. Bhpr. ; a particular antidote Sus3r. ii , 276 , 7 ; a particular Eka7ha (q.v.)
Ka1tyS3r. ; the fifteenth Kalpa ; N. of several men ; of an ape ; of a Na1ga ; of a mountain ; of a Ti1rtha ; (%
{As}) m. pl. the inhabitants of Kraun5ca-dvi1pa BhP. v , 20 , 22 ; N. of a people VarBr2S. ; (%{I}) f. a woman
with masculine peculiarities (as with a beard &c.) L. ; a widow L. ; Carpopogon Pruriens Car. ; another plant L. ;
[cf. Zd. {arSan} ; Gk. $.]
puruSarSabha (%{r} for %{R}) m. = %{-puMgava} MBh. R.

The seal below reads from right to left as rA-kSasa as descent from Pulastya
pulaha m. (%{pula} + 2. %{hA}) N. of an ancient R2ishi (one of the mind-born sons of Brahma1 enumerated
among the Praja1-patis and seven sages) AV.Paris3. Pravar. Mn. MBh. &c. (IW: 517 n. 1) ; N. of a star Hariv. ;
N. of S3ivi S3ivag. ; %{-hA7zrama} m. N. of a hermitage BhP. (= %{harikSetra} Sch.)

prAjApatya mf(%{A4}) is. coming or derived from Praja1-pati , relating or sacred to him AV. &c. ; &c. ; m. a
descendant of PrñPraja1-pati (with or scil. %{nakSatra} or
%{bha}) the asterism Rohin2i1 MBh. Var. ; (also
with %{akSarya} , %{prayas-vat} and %{mAdhucchaudasa}) N. of Sa1mans A1rshBr


The seal to the left showing a similar Sumerian seal reads from left to right. The first glyph is a solar sign than a dvya
sign  and  asta “setting “the third glyph is Bha indicating descent of a  Prajapati, then the Raksasa glyphs.
gada m. a sentence MBh. i , 1787 ; disease , sickness Sus3r. Ragh. &c. ; N. of a son of Vasu-deva and younger
brother of Kr2ishn2a MBh. Hariv. BhP. ; of another son of Vasu-deva by a different mother , ix , 24 , 51 ; n.
poison L. ; (%{A}) f. a series of sentences Ra1matUp. ii , 5 , 4 ; a mace , club , bludgeon MBh. R. &c. ; Bignonia
suaveolens L. ; N. of a musical instrument ; of a constellation VarBr2. Laghuj. ; v.l. for %{gadhA} TS. Sch. (cf. %
{a-gada4} , %{a4-vijJAta-g-}.)
gadAdhara mfn. bearing a club VarBr2S. lviii , 34 Sin6ha7s. ; m. Kr2ishn2a (cf. %{kaumodakI}) BhP. i , 8 , 39 ;
N. of a physician ; of the author of the work Vishaya-vica1ra ; of the father of Mukunda-priya and uncle of
Ra1ma7nanda ; %{-bhaTTa} m. N. of an author.
The seal of the humped bull reads Bha-ga the ga is from gada a club  the glyph is of a club and shield this turns to
"ks"
gadAyudha (%{-dA7y-}) mfn. armed with a club W.
gadin mfn. (fr. %{-da}) sick Bhpr. vii , 14 , 96 ; (fr. %{-dA}) armed with a club (said of Kr2ishn2a) MBh. vii ,
9455 Bhag. ; m. N. of Kr2ishn2a L.

ghAtana mfn. killing Un2. v , 42 (also %{ghat-}) ; m. N. of an inhabitant of a hell L. ; n. slaying , killing , slaughter
, immolating MBh. ii , 1558 Katha1s. xx , 214 Devi1m. ; (%{I}) f. a kind of club Hariv. 2655 and 12537 R. vi ,
37 , 54 (cf. %{-tinI}) (cf. %{kravya-}).
kSaNa 2 m. killing (= ma1ran2a) Gal.
kSaNana n. hurting , injuring Sus3r. iv , 7 , 31 and 34 , 17 ; killing , slaughter W.
kSudrahan m. `" killing the wicked "'N. of S3iva.
rakSohan mf(%{ghnI})n. killing or destroying RñRa1kshasas RV. VS. S3Br. ; m. a partic. spell Kaus3. (cf. %
{rakSo-ghna}) ; bdellium L. ; (with %{brAhma}) N. of the author of RV. x , 162 Anukr. ; (%{ghnI}) f. Acorus
Calamus L.
rakSohatya n. the killing of RñRa1kshasas RV.

kSa 2 mfn. (fr. 4. %{kSi}) see %{tuvikSa4} ; m. destruction , loss L. ; destruction of the world L. ; lightning L. ; a
demon or Rakshas L. ; the fourth incarnation of Vishn2u (as the manlion or nara-sin6ha) L.
kSaNada m. an astrologer L. ; (%{A}) f. `" giving leisure "' , night (= %{kSaNinI}) Ragh. BhP. ; lightning L. ;
turmeric L. ; (%{am}) n. (= %{kSaNadA7ndhya}) night-blindness Sus3r. vi , 17 , 15 ; water L. ; (%{kSaNadA})
%{-kara} m. `" making night "' , the moon S3is3. ix ; 70 ; %{-kRt} m. id. , Va1sav. ; %{-cara} m. `" night-walker
"' ,
Rakshas , goblin MBh. R. iii , 35 , 4 and 55 , 12 ; v , 88 , 22 Ragh. xiii , 75 ; %{kSaNadA7ndhya} n. night-
blindness , nyctalopsis (cf. %{kSapA7ndhya} , %{naktA7ndhya}) Sus3r. ; %{kSaNade7za} m. `" lord of the
night "' , the moon Ba1lar. iv , 5.
kSapAcara m. `" night-walker "' , a Rakshas , goblin MBh. R. HYog. ; any animal that goes out for prey in the
night (as owls , jackals , &c.) VarBr2S. vli , 66.
kSapATa m. `" night-walker "' , a Rakshas , goblin Bhat2t2. ii. 30.
pastya n. (fr. %{pas} and %{tya} [?] ; cf. %{paz-ca}) , a stall , stable (as the back-building? but cf. also Lat. {postis}) RV. ;
(%{A4}) f. see below.
33 pastyA f. homestead , dwelling , household (also pl.) RV. ; du. the 2 halves of the Soma-press ib. x , 96 , 10 ; sg. the
goddess of domestic affairs ib. iv , 55 , 3 ; viii , 27 , 5.
34 pAstya mfn. belonging to a house , domestic ; n. (?) household RV. iv , 21 , 6.
35 pastyasad m. a member of a family RV.
36 pastyAvat (%{-tya}) mfn. having (i.e. being kept in) a stall RV. ix , 97 , 18 ; having a fixed habitation (m. a wealthy man) , i
, 151 , 2 ; forming or offering a fñfixed hñhabitation , ii , 11 , 16 ; iv , 54 , 5 ; belonging to the Soma-press , viii , 7 , 29.
37 paulastya mfn. relating to or descended from Pulasti or Pulastya R. ; m. patr. of Kubera or Ra1van2a MBh. Hariv. R. ; of
Vibhi1shan2a L. ; (pl.) the brothers of Dur-yodhana MBh. ; (pl.) a race of Ra1kshasas L. ; the moon L. ; N. of an author ;
(%{-smRti} f. N. of wk.) ; w.r. for %{paurastya} Katha1s. ; (%{-stI}). f. patr. of Su1rpa-n2akha1 (the sister of Ra1van2a) L.
38 paurastya mf(%{A})n. (fr. %{puras}) situated in front , foremost Ragh. BhP. ; eastern (%{-pavana} m. east wind
Katha1s.) ; pl. the people in the east (= %{gauDa}) Ka1vya7d.
39 prAtastya mfn. matutinal Amar. Sch.
40 prAzastya n. (fr. %{-zasta}) the being praised , celebrity , excellence Ma1lati1m. Katha1s.
41 prAzastya &c. see under 3. %{prA} , p. 702 , col. 3.
42 pulastya m. N. of an ancient R2ishi (one of the mind-born sons of Brahma1 ; also enumerated among the Praja1-patis and
seven sages , and described as a lawgiver) AV. Paris3. Pravar. Mn. MBh. &c. (IW. 517 n. 1) ; N. of S3iva S3ivag. ;
%{-siddhA7nta} m. %{-smRti} f. %{-tyA7STaka} n. N. of wks.
mitra 1 m. (orig. %{mit-tra} , fr. %{mith} or %{mid} ; cf. %{medin}) a friend , companion , associate RV. AV. (in later language mostly n.) ; N. of an A1ditya
(generally invoked together with Varun2a cf. %{mitrA-v-} , and often associated with Aryaman q.v. ; Mitra is extolled alone in RV. iii , 59 , and there described
as calling men to activity , sustaining earth and sky and beholding all creatures with unwinking eye ; in later times he is considered as the deity of the constellation
Anura1dha1 , and father of Utsarga) RV. &c. &c. ; the sun Ka1v. &c. (cf. comp.) ; N. of a Marut Hariv. ; of a son of Vasisht2ha and various other men Pur. ;
of the third Muhu1rta L. ; du. = %{mitra4-varuNa} RV. ; (%{A}) ,f. N. of an Apsaras MBh. (B. %{citrA}) ; of the mother of Maitreya and Maitreyi1
S3am2k. on ChUp. BhP. ; of the mother of S3atru-ghna (= %{
su-mitrA}) L. (W. %{I}) ; n. friendship RV. ; a friend , companion (cf. m. above) TS. &c , &c.
; (with %{aurasa}) a friend connected by blood-relationship Hit. ; an ally (a prince whose territory adjoins that of an immediate neighbour who is called %{ari} ,
enemy. Mn. vii , 158 &c. , in this meaning also applied to planets VarBr2S.) ; a companion to = resemblance of (gen. ; ifc. = resembling , like) Ba1lar. Vcar. ;
N. of the god Mitra (enumerated among the 10 fires) MBh. ; a partic. mode of fighting Hariv. (v.l. for %{bhinna}).
2
saumitra m. (fr. %{su-mitrA}) metron. of Lakshman2a L. ; n. (fr. %{su-mitra}) friendship Ka1t2h. ; N. of various Sa1mans A1rshBr.
3 zatrughna mfn. foe-killing , destroying enemies Pan5car. ; m. N. of one of Ra1ma-candra's brothers (he was son of
Sumitra1 and twin brother of Lakshman2a
, and was the chosen companion of Bharata , son of Kaikeyi1 , as LñLakshman2a was of Ra1ma , son of Kaus3alya1) R. Ragh. &c. (cf. IW. 345 ; 503) ; of
a son of S3va-phalka Hariv. ; of a son of Deva-s3ravas ib. ; (%{I}) f. see %{-han} ; n. a weapon L. ; %{-jananI} f. `" mother of S3atru-ghna "'N. of Su-mitra
L. ; %{-zarman} m. N. of an author Cat.
4 zini m. N. of various men (of a son of Su-mitra , of a son of Garga , of the father of Sa1tyaka , &c. ; %{ziner@naptR} , `" grandson of S3ñS3ini "'N. of
Sa1tyaki , one of the Pa1n2d2u chiefs) MBh. Hariv. Pur. ; (ibc.) the race of S3ini (see below) ; pl. N. of a class of Kshatriyas Un2. iv , 51.
sumitra mf(%{A4})n. having good friends RV. TS. BhP. [1231,2] ; m. a good friend RV. ; N. of a demon MBh. ; of the author of RV. x , 69 , 70 (with patr.
Va1dhryas3va) Anukr. ; of the author of RV. x , 105 (with patr. Kautsa) ib. ; of a king of the Sauvi1ras MBh. ; of a king of Mithila1 Buddh. ; of a king of
Magadha (father of the Arhat Su-vrata) S3atr. ; of the charioteer of Abhimanyu MBh. ; of a son of Gada Hariv. ; of a son of S3ya1ma ib. ; of a son of
S3ami1ka (v.l. Sami1ka) BhP. ; of a son of Kr2ishn2a ib. ; of a son of Vr2ishn2i ib. ; of a son of Agni-mitra Va1s. , Introd. ; of a son of Su-ratha (the last of the
race of the Ikshva1kus) , Bhp. ; (%{A}) f. N. of a Yakshin2i1 Katha1s. ; of one of the wives of Das3a-ratha (mother of Lakshman2a and S3atru-ghna) R.
Ragh. ; of the mother of Ma1rkan2d2eya Cat. ; of the mother of Jaya-deva ib. ; (%{-tra}) %{-dhas} mfn. one who makes good friends MaitrS. VS.
(%{zobhanAni@mitrANi@puSyati} Mahi1dh.) ; %{-bhU} m. N. of Sagara (as a Cakravartin) Jain. ; of the 20th Arhat of the present era ib. ; (%{-trA})
%{-bhU} or %{-tanaya} m. `" son of Sumitra1 "'N. of Lakshman2a W.
vargaprazaMsin mfn. praising one's own class or set (relatives ,
dependants &c.) Ni1lak.
zUdravarga m. the S3ñS3udra class MW.
vargaNA f. division , class , Sil. ; multiplication VarBr2S.

varga (accented only in Nigh.) m. (fr. %{vRj}) one who excludes or
removes or averts KaushUp. ; (ifc. f. %{A}) a separate division , class ,
set , multitude of similar things (animate or inanimate) , group , company ,
family , party , side (mostly ifc. e.g. %{catur-} , %{tri-v-} q.v. ; often pl.
for sg.) Ka1tyS3r. Pra1t. &c. ; (esp.) any series or group of words
classified together (as %{manuSya-vanas-pati-v-} &c.) , or a class or
series of consonants in the alphabet (seven such classes being given , viz.
%{ka-varga} , `" the class of Guttural letters %{ca-kAra-v-} , or
%{ca-v-} , `" the Palatals "' [924,1] ; %{Ta-v-} `" the Cerebrals "' ;
%{ta-v-} `" the Dentals "' ; %{pa-v-} `" the Labials "' ; %{ya-v-} `" the
Semivowels "' ; %{za-v-} `" the Sibilants "' , and the aspirate h cf.
%{varga-dvitIya} and %{-prathama}) Pra1t. VarBr2S. Vop. ;
everything comprehended under any department or head , everything
included under a category , province or sphere of. VarBr2S. ; =
%{tri-varga} (q.v.) BhP. ;
mitra 1 m. (orig. %{mit-tra} , fr. %{mith} or %{mid} ; cf. %{medin}) a friend , companion ,
associate RV. AV. (in later language mostly n.) ; N. of an A1ditya (generally invoked together with
Varun2a cf. %{mitrA-v-} , and often associated with Aryaman q.v. ; Mitra is extolled alone in RV.
iii , 59 , and there described as calling men to activity , sustaining earth and sky and beholding all
creatures with unwinking eye ; in later times he is considered as the deity of the constellation
Anura1dha1 , and father of Utsarga) RV. &c. &c. ; the sun Ka1v. &c. (cf. comp.) ; N. of a Marut
Hariv. ; of a son of Vasisht2ha and various other men Pur. ; of the third Muhu1rta L. ; du. =
%{mitra4-varuNa} RV. ; (%{A}) ,f. N. of an Apsaras MBh. (B. %{citrA}) ; of the mother of
Maitreya and Maitreyi1 S3am2k. on ChUp. BhP. ; of the mother of S3atru-ghna (= %{su-mitrA})
L. (W. %{I}) ; n. friendship RV. ; a friend , companion (cf. m. above) TS. &c , &c. ; (with
%{aurasa}) a friend connected by blood-relationship Hit. ; an ally (a prince whose territory adjoins
that of an immediate neighbour who is called %{ari} , enemy. Mn. vii , 158 &c. , in this meaning also
applied to planets VarBr2S.) ; a companion to = resemblance of (gen. ; ifc. = resembling , like)
Ba1lar. Vcar. ; N. of the god Mitra (enumerated among the 10 fires) MBh. ; a partic. mode of
fighting Hariv. (v.l. for %{bhinna}).
bhaga m. (ifc. f. %{A} and %{I} g. %{bahv-Adi}) `" dispenser "' , gracious lord , patron (applied
to gods , esp. to Savitr2i) RV. AV. ; N. of an A1ditya (bestowing wealth and presiding over love
and marriage , brother of the Dawn , regent of the Nakshatra Uttara-Phalguni1 ; Ya1ska enumerates
him among the divinities of the highest sphere ; according to a later legend his eyes were destroyed
by Rudra) ib. &c. &c. [743,3] ; the Nakshatra UñUttara-PhñPhalguni1 MBh. vi , 81 ; the sun
ib. iii , 146 ; the moon L. ; N. of a Rudra MBh. ; good fortune , happiness , welfare , prosperity RV.
AV. Br. Ya1jn5. BhP.
aryaman %{A} m. a bosom friend , play-fellow , companion , (especially) a friend who asks a
woman in marriage for another RV. AV. S3Br. TBr. ; N. of an Aditya (who is commonly invoked
together with Varun2a and Mitra , also with Bhaga , Br2ihaspati , and others ; he is supposed to be
the chief of the Manes Bhag. &c. , the milky way is called his path [%{aryamNa4H@pa4nthAH}
TBr.] ; he presides over the Nakshatra Uttaraphalguni1 VarBr2S. ; his name is used to form
different male names Pa1n2. 5-3 , 84) RV. &c. ; the sun S3is3. ii , 39 ; the Asclepias plant L. [93,2]
rabh or %{rambh} (mostly comp. with a prep. ; cf. %{grabh} and see %{labh} with which %{rabh} is connected) cl. 1. A1. (Dha1tup. xxiii , 5)
%{ra4bhate} (m. c. also %{-ti} and ep. %{rambhati} , %{-te} ; pf. %{rebhe4} RV. ; also %{rArabhe} and 1. pl. %{rarabhma4} ; aor.
%{a4rabdha} RV. ; fut. %{rabdhA} Gr. ; %{rapsyati} MBh. ; %{-te} ib. &c. ; inf. %{rabdhum} MBh. ;
rabhasa mf(%{A})n. (fr. prec.) impetuous , violent , rapid , fierce , wild RV. &c. &c. ; (ifc.) eager for , desirous of Ka1lid. ; strong , powerful
(said of the Soma) RV. ; shining , glaring ib. ; m. impetuosity , vehemence , hurry , haste , speed , zeal , passion , eager desire for (comp.) MBh.
Ka1v. &c. (also %{A} f. L. ; %{rabhasa} ibc. ; %{at} and %{ena} ind. violently , impetuously , eagerly , quickly) ; joy , pleasure Gi1t. ; regret ,
sorrow W. ; poison L. ; N. of a magical incantation recited over weapons R. ; of a Da1nava (v.l. %{razmisa}) ; of a king (son of Rambha) BhP. ;
of a
Ra1kshasa L. ; of a lexicographer (also called %{rabhasa-pAla}) Cat. ; of a monkey R.
   
rabhasakoza m. Rabhasa's dictionary Cat.
  rAbhasya n. (fr. %{rabhasa}) velocity , impetuosity , Dha1tuP. ; delight , joy , pleasure MW.
Rbhu mfn. (%{rabh}) , clever , skilful , inventive , prudent (said of Indra , Agni , and the A1dityas RV. ; also
of property or wealth RV. iv , 37 , 5 ; viii , 93 , 34 ; of an arrow AV. i , 2 , 3) ; (%{us}) m. an artist , one
who works in iron , a smith , builder (of carriages &c.)N. of three semi-divine beings (R2ibhu , Va1ja , and
Vibhvan , the name of the first being applied to all of them ; thought by some to represent the three seasons of
the year [Ludwig RV. vol. iii , p. 187] , and celebrated for their skill as artists ; they are supposed to dwell in
the solar sphere , and are the artists who formed the horses of Indra , the carriage of the As3vins , and the
miraculous cow of Br2ihaspati ; they made their parents young , and performed other wonderful works
[Sv-apas] ; they are supposed to take their ease and remain idle for twelve days [the twelve intercalary days
of the winter solstice] every year in the house of the Sun [Agohya] ; after which they recommence working ;
when the gods heard of their skill , they sent Agni to them with the one cup of their rival Tvasht2r2i , the
artificer of the gods , bidding the R2ibhus construct four cups from it ; when they had successfully executed
this task , the gods received the R2ibhus amongst themselves and allowed them to partake of their sacrifices
&c. ; cf. Kaegi RV. p. 53 f.) RV. AV. &c. ; they appear generally as accompanying Indra , especially at the
evening sacrifice ; in later mythology R2ibhu is a son of Brahman VP. ; a deity L. ; (%{avas}) m. a class of
deities ; [cf. Gk. $ ; Lat. {labor} ; Goth. &70848[226 ,2] {arb-aiths} ; Angl. Sax. $ ; Slav. {rab-u8}.]
2 RbhukSa m. Indra L. ; (Indra's) heaven Comm. on Un2. iv , 12 ; Indra's thunderbolt L. ; (this word
appears to owe its origin to the next.)
3 RbhukSin %{As} m. (see Gr. 162 Pa1n2. 7-1 , 85 ff.)N. of the above R2ibhus , and esp. of the first of
them RV. ; N. of Indra (as the lord of the R2ibhus Nir.) RV. ; of the Maruts RV. viii. 7 , 9 ; xx , 2 ; great ,
best [Sa1y.] RV. viii , 93 , 34.
4 RbhukSINa Nom. P. %{RbhukSINati} , to behave like R2ibhukshin Siddh.
5 Rbhumat mfn. clever , skilful , prudent RV. i , 111 , 2 ; accompanied by or connected with the R2ibhus
RV. VS. xxxviii , 8 AitBr. ii , 20 , 14 Ka1tyS3r.
6 RbhuSThira (voc.) mfn. clever and wise (said of Indra) RV. viii , 77 , 8.
7 Rbhva
8 Rbhvan and mfn. clever , skilful , prudent , wise (N. of Indra , Tvasht2r2i , Agni , &c.) RV. AV. v , 2 , 7.
[226,3]
9 Rbhvas mfn. clever , skilful , prudent , wise (N. of Indra , Tvasht2r2i , Agni , &c.) RV. AV. v , 2 , 7.
[226,3]
ArSabha mf(%{I})n. (fr.
%{RSabha}) , coming from or
produced by a bull S3Br.
MBh. ; m. a descendant of
R2ishabha BhP. ; (%{I}) f. N.
of several constellations VP.
Comm. on BhP. ;