Om   na    m     o      Bha   g     a   v     a        te
                          Vasudevaya                              vasu   vasu
Om Namo Bhagavate Vasudevaya  is a mantra. ‘Om Namo Bhagavate Vasudevayaâ
€™ is a mantra of Krishna or Vishnu. Dhruva used this as his mantra in his penance.
Dhruva was initiated by Narada into chanting.   This twelve syllable mantra is known as a
Mukti (liberation) mantra and a spiritual formula for attaining freedom. This can be
chanted like Gayatri Mantra.This is the principal mantra of the Vedic scripture "Srimad
Bhagavatam". This mantra can also be found in Vishnu Purana. Below the first seven
syllables are stressed as the symbols of the seven candles.
; dvAdazapattraka n. N. of a Yoga or partic. religious observance
in which the 12 syllables.
%{oM@namo@bhagavate@vAsudevAya} are connected with the
12 signs of the zodiac and with the 12 months Va1mP.
oM@namo@bhagavate@vAsudevAya
bhuvah   bhÅ«r   Om     túr  sva  svah
                                          
b             ya      va     de
b          vasu        va
Om bhur bhuvah svah
tat savitur varen (i)ya
bhargo devasya dhimahi
dhíyo yó nah  
pracodáy�t
Om bhūr
bhuvah
       svah   tát savitúr
           
       túr         bhárgo
devásya
        
    dhÄ«    ma    hi
         
dhíyo yó nah  pracodáyÄ�t
yo yó  dhí     ma  dhÄ«   
ya
dhÄ«mahi      dhíyo yó
nah
tat     sva tur      bha
                              bhárgo
 Om bhÅ«r bhuvah
svah        
       the three lined glyph top
right is a stop
   the two lines below right are   à¥¤
    sa   deva       deva      
devasa     
the ya is the start of next line
       pra        co           dáyÄ�t
b
           Om bhÅ«r bhuvah
svah                             
    svah       savitúr   bhárgo     devasa
 tur   dhÄ«mahi                         dhíyo yó
nah  
                                                
             pracodáyÄ�t
Om bhūr bhuvah svah
tát savitúr váren (i)ya
bhárgo devásya dhīmahi
dhíyo yó nah  
pracodáy�t
In his Against Apion, the 1st-century AD historian Josephus Flavius debates the synchronism between
the Biblical account of the Exodus of the Israelites from Egypt, and two Exodus-like events that the
Egyptian historian Manetho apparently mentions. It is difficult to distinguish between what Manetho
himself recounted, and how Josephus or Apion interpret him. Josephus identifies the Israelite Exodus
with the first exodus mentioned by Manetho, when some 480,000 Hyksos "shepherd kings" (also
referred to as just 'shepherds', as 'kings' and as 'captive shepherds' in his discussion of Manetho) left
Egypt for Jerusalem.[11] The mention of "Hyksos" identifies this first exodus with the Hyksos period
(16th century BC).The Hyksos practiced horse burials, and their chief deity, their native storm god,
became associated with the Egyptian storm and desert god, Seth.[4] Although most Hyksos names
seem Semitic, the Hyksos also included Hurrians, who, while speaking an isolated language, were
under the rule and influence of Indo-Europeans.
Later times
The Hyksos continued to play a role in Egyptian literature as
a synonym for "Asiatic" down to Hellenistic times. The term
was frequently evoked,[citation needed] against such groups
as the Semites settled in Aswan or the Delta, and this may
have led the Egyptian priest and historian Manetho to identify
the coming of the Hyksos with the sojourn in Egypt of Joseph
and his brothers, and led to some authors identifying the
expulsion of the Hyksos with the Exodus. With the chaos at
the end of the 19th Dynasty, the first pharaohs of the 20th
Dynasty in the Elephantine Stele and the Harris Papyrus
re-invigorated an anti-Hyksos stance to strengthen their
nativist reaction towards the Asiatic settlers of the north, who
may,[citation needed] again have been expelled from the
country. Setnakht, the founder of the 20th Dynasty, records
in a Year 2 stela from Elephantine that he defeated and
expelled a large force of Asiatics who had invaded Egypt
during the chaos between the end of Twosret's reign and the
beginning of the 20th dynasty and captured much of their
stolen gold and silver booty.
The story of the Hyksos was known to the Greeks,[who?]
who attempted to identify it within their own mythology with
the expulsion of Belus (Baal?) and the daughters of Danaos,
associated with the origin of the Argive dynasty.
 Vasu      Brahma                deva



subrahman m. a good Bra1hman S3a1n3khS3r. ; N. of a Deva-putra Lalit. ; n. the good Brahman AitBr. ;
(%{-bra4hman}) mfn. attended with good prayers or having a good Brahman (priest) RV. ; (%{-ma})
%{-bandhUka} mfn. Ka1s3. on Pa1n2. 6-2 , 173 ; %{-vAsudeva} m. N. of the son of Vasu-deva in the form of
Brahma1 (i.e. of Kr2ishn2a identified with the Creator) Tithya1d.
frome right to left   Deva
                     da - sa
                           ga  Ma   sa
                  ya    ga
              g             ta
                                           ga
Divod�sa ("heaven's servant") is a name of a tribal king in the Rigveda (celebrated for his liberality
and protected by Indra and the Ashvins in the Rigveda, RV 1.112.14; 1.116.18), the son of
Vadhryashva RV 6.61.5. He is the father of the famous Sudas (RV 7.18.28) (of the Battle of the Ten
Kings).
It is also the name of a king of Kashi surnamed Dhanvantari as per the hymn (RV 10.179.2). The
founder of the Indian school of medicine called Ayurveda.[1]
The D�sa appear as a hostile ("savage, barbarian, infidel") population in the
Rigveda. In the later Vedic texts, the meaning shifts to "slave, servant". The
Rigvedic Dasa and Dasyu are characterized by their not following the religion of
the Aryas; hence, the term implied "impiety", and Aryan kings could also
become "Dasyu" if their behaviour was considered irreligious; thus, in the battle
of the Ten Kings, the king Sudas calls his enemies (which included Vedic
peoples like the Anus, Druhyus, Turvashas, and even Purus) "Dasyu" (RV 7.6,
12-14, 18). There is also a Dasa Balbutha Taruksa in RV 6.45.31 who is a
patron of a seer and who is distinguished by his generosity (RV 8.46.32). There
are several hymns in the Rigveda that refer to Dasa and Aryan enemies [1] and
to related (jami) and unrelated (ajami) enemies (e.g. 1.111.3, 4.4.5); still, in the
battle of the ten kings, there are Dasas and Aryas on both sides of the battlefield
and in some Rigvedic verses, the Aryas and Dasas stood united against their
enemies.[2] The word "dasa" is contained in the name of a famous Vedic king,
Divod�sa.[3] The Dasa appear as a hostile, autonomous tribe with a different
religion is absent from the later Vedas, reflecting the conquest of the indigenous
populations of northern India in the course of the Indo-Aryan migration. In the
Atharvaveda, the word simply means "slave, servant". The meaning of the word
d�sa, which has been long preserved in the Saka language, is "man"
Devodasa maggaya
tagga saha
dhīmahi
              The Image of a Buddhist statue with inscription was taken from
Taxila (Takshashila) a famous place to both Vedic/Hindu and Buddhist.  I
was asked for a decipherment of the image. The inscription is an early
north western Brahmi script, very close to the early Sharada script. The
inscription on the statue reads (right to left) "Sukhabodha MahAdeva"
(The Sensation of pleasure at the city of Buddha.). The numbers in the
circles below the image are the match's to the Brahmi script from the
inscription.  The 5th # got cut off in the scan it is the 6th letter , top box
right ( it is one letter but two signs in the Sharada script,  it is the
retroflexe d, this d changes to a dental in some regional scripts).  Just
after this D is an H  (Bod-ha) the same sign that is after the Ma in Ma-ha
(possible letter missing a vowell  in the space after the last 'h').
   The Brahmi script is the oldest member of the Brahmic family of
alphabets. The Brahmi script usually runs from left to right but a coin from
the 4th century BC like the statue below are written from right to left like
the Indus Valley script (some regional scripts also run right to left). The
first official unveiling of the Brahmi script was in the Ashoka era.  Ashoka
was the emperor of India around 272 to 231 BCE and grandson of
Chandragupta Maurya (320 - 298 BC) who was credited with defeating
Alexander's satrapies.  Ashoka converted to Buddhism over his remorse
at the battle of Kalingas (264BCE). Here their official script is first
unveiled under Buddhism and not the prior two generations before
Ashoka or even the countless generations before Alexanders conquest of
Pakistan.  Where today there is evidence of the same script as early as
600 BC, again up to Ashoka they never officially unveiled it.  The Brahmi
script is believed by most scholars to be derived from a Semitic script
(below second box down on the right; evolution from the Sinaitic script to
the Phoenician and then Greek).  I believe the Indus Valley script to be
the origin of both the Brahmi and early Semitic scripts. The established
relationship between the Brahmi script and the early Semitic script can be
seen in the box below on the right (marked A.).  Below the box is a
relationship I found between the early Cantonese and the Cypriot script
of the Mediterranean. Here I wish to point out that in the same time this
script appears in the middle east with the Semitic’s, Vedic words
start appearing.  Vedic words start appearing in the middle east around
1700 BC, same time as the end of the Indus Valley. The relationship of
the Indo-European Cypriot and early China can only be explained by the
common denominator the Vedic Indus Valley that traded with China with
a relationship between there scripts (Indus Valley - China relationship link
below). On the right are the sites of the Simitic scripts and Sarada script.  
The letter B below is a square box found in the Thamudic, Safatene, and
Proto-Sinitic scripts.  Below the inscription has a combination 'B' and 'Bh'
best preserved in the Pallava script.
MahAdeva the city of Buddha
 The inscription reads:
Sukhabodha   Perception or sensation of pleasure MW. ; %{-kRt} mfn.
causing to be easily understood S3atr. ; %{-rUpa} mfn. easily
understood Ka!v.

MahAdeva     %{-pura} n. N. of a city Buddh.

 The Sensation of pleasure at the city of Buddhi.

MahAsukha   m.  "having great joy" , a Buddha L ; n. "great pleasure"

Here  Sukhabuddhi easy understanding or knowledge Cat.
The inscription may read the knowledge of the city of Buddha.

Sukhabodhana  N. of a Commentary.
SukhabodhinI  N. of wks.

Mahendra "great Inscr's city"  Budd.
  a v e  d ha  ma a  h  d   o     b   kha Su
        Sukhabodha MahAdeva
bodha
Top line from the left; om devamani
shiva
datta ;
       Bhagavate
same as seal to the left
Bha ga va    te
  Oum                             n       a    m      o
                          Deva                     Vasu
                                          Sign-board reads  Mula Dvarka suvarnabha

The Dvararvati Sila is a type of Sila or coral stone obtained from the Gomati river (Gomti
River) in Dvaraka. Dvaraka is located in the Jamnagar District of Gujarat at the mouth of the
Gomati River as it debouches into the Gulf of Kutch. The city lies in the westernmost part of
India. In ancient Sanskrit literature Dvaraka was called Dvarawati and was rated as one of the
seven most prehistoric cities in the country. Thus, the Sila or the stone obtained at the mouth of
the Gomati river is called the Dvaravati Sila and is worshipped.
Dvaraka Silas are coral with chakra (wheel) markings and the chakra-mark is the most
distinguishing feature of these stones, and hence they are called ‘chakrankita-sila’.[1][2]
Aniconic representation of God is by a symbol rather than an image. Indian art overwhelmingly
prefers the iconic image, but some aniconism does occur in folk worship, in early Hinduism in
the form of Vishnu's Saligrama Sila (murthi) (fossil stone), Dvaravati Sila (coral stone),
Govardhana Sila (stone from the Govardhan hill), etc. They have solar significance, and their
use in worship is very common among all sects of Vaishnavites of Hindu religion.
The chakra-mark is the most distinguishing feature of the Dvaravati stones, and hence they are
called "chakrankita-sila". According to Garuda Purana, there are twelve varieties of this stone,
owing to the number of chakras (wheels), colours and forms (Sanskrit sloka in this regard
states:‘dasadha cha prabhinnas ta varnakrti-vibhedatah’).
When there is only one chakra,
the stone is called Devesa;
when there are two chakras, it is Sudarshana; three chakras
represent the deity Ananta. When there are four chakras, the stone is Janardana. Vasudeva is
represented by the stone having five chakras, Pradyumna by six chakras, Bala-bhadra by
seven, Purushottama by eight, Nava-vyuha by nine, Dasavatara by ten, Aniruddha by eleven
and Dvadastma by twelve. Nava-vyuha represents the collection of nine forms of Vishnu:
Vasudeva, Samkarshana, Pradyumna, Aniruddha, Narayana, Hayagriva, Vishnu, Nrsimha and
Varaha. The first four forms are well known as ‘chatur-vyuha’. The twelve major forms
of Vishnu are derived from these nine forms, according to the Tantra siddhanta, a division of
Pancharatra.
Prahlada Samhita, quoted in Salagrama-pariksha (by Anupasimha) gives the first few names
differently. The Dvaravati Sila with only one chakra is called Sudarsana, with two chakras
'Lakshmi-narayana' and with three chkras 'Trivikrama'. The rest of the names are the same as
given above. The name Ananta is given to stones which have more than twelve chakras. The
name for Dasavatara in the above list is given here as 'Dasamurti'. When the chakras are more
than twelve, only even numbered chakras are to be preferred, according to Galava-smrtir.
This is the "Ya" at the end
arbuda
m. Ved. a serpent-like demon (conquered by Indra ,
a descendant of Kadru1 therefore called Ka1draveya
S3Br. AitBr. ; said to be the author of RV. x , 94
RAnukr.) RV. &c. ; (%{a4s}) m.id. RV.i , 51 , 6
and x , 67 , 12 ; (%{am}) n. N. of the above-named
hymn RV. x , 94 A1s3vS3r. ; (%{as} , %{am}) m.
n. a long round mass (said especially of the shape of
the foetus in the second half of the first month [Nir.
xiv , 6] or in the second month [Ya1jn5. iii , 75 and
89]) ; a swelling , tumour , polypus Sus3r. &c. ;
(%{a4rbuda}) , ri. (also m. L.) ten millions VS. xvii ,
2 , &c. ; (%{as}) ,m.N. of a mountain in the west of
India (commonly called Abu1 , a place of pilgrimage
of the Jainas , and celebrated for its Jaina temples) ;
m. pl.N. of a people VarBr2S. BhP. &c.



bhUdhara  
mfn. `" eñearth-bearing "' , dwelling in the eñearth
R. ; m. `" earth-supporting "'N. of Kr2ishn2a BhP. ;
of Bat2uka-bhairava L. ; a mountain (ifc. f. %{A})
MBh. Hariv. Pur. &c. ; `" mountain "' and `" king "'
Harav. ; a term for the number seven Su1ryas. ; N. of
Siva or of the serpent-demon S3esha MBh. ; a kind
of chemical or medical apparatus L. ; N. of sev. men
Cat. ; %{guhA7ntara-tas} ind. from within the caves
of the mountains MW. ; %{-ja} m. `" mountain-born
"' , a tree MBh. (Ni1lak.) ; %{-tA} f. the state or act
of supporting the earth Kum. ; %{-yantra} n. a
partic. apparatus for boiling Bhpr. ; %{-rAja} m. =
%{-dhare7zvara} A. ; %{-dharA7tmaka} or
%{-dharA7dhI7za} m. N. of Bat2ukabhairava L. ;
%{-
n                                                                                              To the right are two mantras they appear as the Gayatri in reveres.
s
s
d
Same "dh" one from the Island of
Malta the other from Pakistan.
On the stone with the Gayatri mantra etched on its surface
below. To the right of the written part is a musical scale. The
Gayatri Mantra consists of twenty-four syllables - three lines
of eight syllables each. On the scale it has four dashes three
times =12, starting from the bottom two long dashes 2x then
one long dash separating two four dashes and two long dashes
for the last four dashes making a total of 24.