30   31   32      33          34      35      36    37      38           39    40
kakud %{t} f. a peak or summit (Lat. {cacumen}) ; chief , head RV. viii , 44 , 16 AV. vi , 86 , 3 TS. S3Br. ; any projecting corner or projection (as of a plough)
BhP. v , 25 , 7 ; the
hump on the shoulders of the Indian bullock AV. TS. BhP. &c. ; the hump (of a man) Katha1s. ; N. of a metre (= %{kaku4bh}) TS. ; an ensign or
symbol of royalty (as the white parasol &c.) ; N. of a daughter of Daksha and wife of Dharma ; (cf. %{tri-kakud} , %{sthUla-kakud} , &c. , where the form
%{kakud} is said to be substituted for %{ka4kuda} below Pa1n2. 5-4 , 146 ; 147.)
5
kakuda %{as} , %{am} m. n. a peak , summit (of a mountain &c.) ; chief , head , pre-eminent AV. x , 10 , 19 S3Br. Ragh. &c. ; the hump on the shoulders of the
Indian
bullock MBh. ; a species of serpent Sus3r. ; an ensign or symbol of royalty (as the white parasol &c.) Ragh. ; m. N. of a king VP.
6
kakudmat mfn. having a projection or elevation , possessing a hump RV. x , 8 , 2 ; 102 , 7 VS. ix , 6 Ragh. Pan5cat. &c. ; (%{An}) m. a mountain Ragh. xiii , 47 ;
a bullock with a
hump on his shoulders Kum. i , 57 ; N. of a medicinal plant L. ; (%{tI}) f. the hip and loins L. ; N. of a metre ; N. of the wife of Pradyumna VP.
7
kakudmin mfn. peaked , humped MBh. VarBr2S. ; (%{I}) m. a mountain L. ; a bullock with a hump on his shoulders BhP. ; N. of Vishn2u Hariv. ; of a king of the
A1nartas Hariv. 644 BhP. ix , 3 , 29 VP. ; (%{inI}) f. N. of a river PadmaP.
8
kakudvat mfn. having a hump ; (%{An}) m. a bullock with a hump on his shoulders R. ; (%{tI}) f. N. of the wife of Pradyumna (v.l. %{kakudmatI}) VP.
9
kakutstha m. `" standing on a hump "'N. of a son of Sas3a1da and grandson of Ikshva1ku MBh. Hariv. BhP. &c. (so called because in a battle he stood on the
hump of Indra who had been changed into a bull ; according to the R. he is a son of Bhagi1ratha).
Varna Samamnaya
In Vedic times a vowel could be
classified into three types, that is,
pronounced in three ways, based on
accent of articulation. This feature was
lost in Classical Sanskrit, but used in
reciting Vedic & Upanishadic hymns
and mantras.
Udatta : high pitch colour red
Anudatta : low pitch colour yellow
Svarita : falling pitch colour white
the falling sound of ou creates the m in
"om".
below the use of Varna colour and
writing.
samAmnAya m. mention together , traditional collection ,
enumeration , list Nir. Pra1t. &c. ; handing down by
tradition or from memory MBh. ; collection or compilation
of sacred texts (esp. any special redaction of a Vedic text)
A1s3vS3r. ;
varNamAlA f. order or series of letters (esp. rows of letters
written on a board or in a diagram) , the alphabet L. ; %
{praznagrantha} m. N. of wk.
varNakrama order of castes (%{eNa} ind. according to
the order of castes) Prab. ; order or series of letters ,
alphabetical arrangement , alphabet W. ;

 
varNamAtR f. `" letter-mother "' , a pen , pencil &c. L.
varNapAta m. the dropping or omission of a letter in
pronunciation MW.
varNapATha m. `" letterregister "' , the alphabet Pat.
varNarAzi m. `" multitude or series of letters "' , the
alphabet RPra1t. , Introd. Sarvad.
varNasthAna n. the place or organ of utterance of any
sound or letter (eight in number , as `" the throat "' &c. ; see
under %{sthAna}) Ragh.
varNasamAmnAya (VPra1t. &c.) m. `" assemblage or
aggregate of letters "' , the alphabet.
varNatulikA or f. `" letter-brush "' , a pen , pencil , paint-
brush L.
varNatulI f. `" letter-brush "' , a pen , pencil , paint-brush L.
varNatva n. (Sus3r. Kull. &c.) the state of colour , colour
(%{anyavarNa-tva} , the being of another colour) ; the
state or condition of caste , division into classes ; the state
or condition
of a letter or sound.
varNaviparyaya
m. the change or substitution of one letter
for another MW.
the above Mantra
One through six “oumâ€�    white the colour
7# a divided pronouncation
eight through ten “oum� Same "o" as the Brahaman
script
#13 through #15 type of conjunction   #16 and #17
#16 “sama-#17 grahaâ€�    samAhAra seizing , taking
hold of. Gr2ihya1s. ; aggregation , summing up , sum ,
totality , collection , assemblage , multitude MBh. Ka1v.
&c. ; (in gram.) conjunction or connecting of words or
sentences (as by the particle %{ca}) Sam2k. Pra1t. Sch.
Pa1n2. Sch. ;
compounding of words , a compound (esp.
applied to a Dvamdva whose last member is in the neuter
gender [e.g. %{ahi-nakulam} , `" a snake and an
ichneumon "'] , or to a Dvigu , when it expresses an
aggregate ; see %{trilokI}). Pa1n2. ; = %{pratyAhAra}
Vop (cf. IW. 169 n. 1) ; withdrawal (of the senses from the
world) Ka1m. ; contraction , abridgment L. ; -varma m. N.
of the diphthongs %{ai} and %{au} Pat ,
samAgata    mfn. come together , met , encountered , joined
, assembled Mn. Ya1jn5. MBh. &c. ; being in conjunction
with (instr.) VarBr2S. ; come to , approached , arrived ,
returned R. Mr2icch. &c. ; (%{A}) f. a kind of riddle or
enigma (the meaning of which is hidden by the Sam2dhi q.
v.) Ka1vya7d.
#18        
gaura the colour yellow or gold       (%{I4}) f.
the female of the Bos Gaurus RV. (`" Va1c or voice of the
middle region of the air "' , i , 164 , 41 according to Naigh. i
, 11 and Nir. xi , 40) ; N. of several metres (one of 4 x 12
syllables ; another of 4 x 13 syllables ; another of 4 x 26
long syllables) ; (in music) a kind of measure ;
#19 ; nam  to yield or give way , keep quiet or be silent
Ba1lar. vi , 12 ; (in gram.) to change a dental letter into a
cerebral RPra1t.: . nAmadvAdazI a ceremony consisting in
worshipping Durga1 under one of her 12 appellations
(
Gaurs , Ka1li1 , Uma1 , Bhadra1 , Durgl , Ka1nti ,
Sarasvati , Man3gala1 , Vaishn2avi , Lakshmi1 , S3iva1 ,
Na1a1yan2i1) W.
gaura mf(%{I4})n. (in comp. or ifc. g. %{kaDArA7di})
white ,
yellowish , reddish , pale red RV. x , 100 , 2 TS. v
&c. ; shining , brilliant , clean , beautiful Caurap. ; m. white
, yellowish (the colour) W. ; a kind of buffalo (Bos Gaurus ,
often classed with the Gavaya) RV. VS. &c. the moon L. ;
the planet Jupiter L. ; N. of the Na1ga S3esha Gal. ; of
Caitanya (cf. %{-candra}) ; of a Yoga teacher (son of
S3uka and Pi1vari1) Hariv. 981 ;; (%{A}) f. = %{rI4} L.
(cf. %{gaulA}) ; (%{I4}) f. the female of the Bos Gaurus
RV. (`" Va1c or voice of the middle region of the air "' , i ,
164 , 41 according to Naigh. i , 11 and Nir. xi , 40) ; = %
{gaurikA} Gr2ihya1s. ii , N. of several metres (one of 4 x
12 syllables ; another of 4 x 13 syllables ; another of 4 x 26
long syllables) ; (in music) a kind of measure ; (ib.) N. of a
Ra1gin2i1 ; `" brilliant Goddess "' , S3iva's wife Pa1rvati1
AV. Paris3. Nr2isUp. i , 4 , 3 , 10 &c. ; N. of Varun2a's wife
MBh. v , xiii ; of a Vidya1-devi1 , iii , 231 , 48 Hariv. ;
#20 the letter “O�
#24  â€œbhaâ€�
#25  â€�gaâ€�
#26  â€œ vâ€�
#28  â€œaâ€�
#29  â€œteâ€�
#30 dva original stem of %{dvi} q.v. (nom. acc.
du. m. %
{dva4} , or %{dvau4} fn. %{dve4} ; instr. dat. abl. %
{dvA4bhyAm} gen. loc. %{dva4yos}) two RV. &c. &c. ;
#31 and #32 samAhAra seizing ,
#33 rohiNI   f. (f. of %{rohita} , `" red "' , below ; also f. of
%{rohin} above) a red cow or [later] any cow (represented
as a daughter of Surabhi and mother of cattle , esp. of
Ka1ma-dhenu , `" cow of plenty "' ; in the Veda , Rohin2i1
may perhaps also mean `" a red mare "') RV. &c. &c. N. of
the ninth Nakshatra or lunar asterism and of the lunar day
belonging to it (in this sense it may optionally have the
accent on the last syllable ;
rohapUrva mfn. having the tones or accents ascending
Sam2hUp.
#34 dvAdaza 1 mf(%{I4})n. the twelfth VS. S3Br. Mn.
MBh. &c. (du. the eleventh and twelfth Ka1t2h.) ; ifc. (f. %
{A}) forming 12 with (cf. %{azva-} add.) ; consisting of 12
, 12 fold RV. S3Br. ;
#35 - #43 Vasu deva

The Aramaic , Hebrew, Phoenician scripts all use samek
glyph meaning fish I found the glyph to be visually similar
to the Sanskrit grammatical stop this found in the three
Gayatri’s {link right} the glyph is a grammatical
conjunction. This precedes “sounds like Sam thus the
glyph starts being used as “s� instead of conjuntion.
Below the same with “tat� used in the Gayatri
becomes “tet� in Aramaic , Hebrew, Phoenician. The
attachment above is a glyph found on a tin ingot {guru} the
right side of the glyph is the 'g' from the Brahman script

sam  ind. (connected with 7. %{sa} and 2. %{sama} , and
opp. to 3. %{vi} q.v.) with , together with , along with ,
together , altogether (used as a preposition or prefix to
verbs and verbal derivatives , like Gk. $ , &348389[1152 ,
1] Lat. {con} , and expressing `" conjunction "' , `" union "'

samAgata mfn. come together , met , encountered , joined ,
assembled Mn. Ya1jn5. MBh. &c. ; being in conjunction
with (instr.) VarBr2S. ; come to , approached , arrived ,
returned R. Mr2icch. &c. ; (%{A}) f. a kind of riddle or
enigma (the meaning of which is hidden by the Sam2dhi q.
v.) Ka1vya7d.

samAhAra m. seizing , taking hold of. Gr2ihya1s. ;
aggregation , summing up , sum , totality , collection ,
assemblage , multitude MBh. Ka1v. &c. ; (in gram.)
conjunction or connecting of words or sentences (as by the
particle %{ca}) Sam2k. Pra1t. Sch. Pa1n2. Sch. ;
compounding of words , a compound (esp. applied to a
Dvamdva whose last member is in the neuter gender [e.g. %
{ahi-nakulam} , `" a snake and an ichneumon "'] , or to a
Dvigu , when it expresses an aggregate ; see %{trilokI}).
Pa1n2. ; = %{pratyAhAra} Vop (cf. IW. 169 n. 1) ;
withdrawal (of the senses from the world) Ka1m. ;
contraction , abridgment L. ; -varma m. N. of the
diphthongs %{ai} and %{au} Pat ,
 Prof.  T.P. Verma

In the Vedic literature there is evidence about the pre-
Ã…gvedic language which was codified by Indra. This
must have been the primordial language used by the early
man. In India we call it Präkrit (natural) as against
Sanskrit (refined or cultured). It is a wrong assumption that
the Präkrits evolved after the Sanskrit.[10]The
Taittiréyasaà hitä relates a page of early history of
humanity when people spoke natural language and were not
restricted by any grammatical rules. There seems some sort
of chaos prevailing in word pronunciation and sentence
construction. It is pertinent to point out that man descended
on this earth with fully developed organs of speech in his
body and he got speech through divine inspiration.
Language is always associated with the thinking process;
simply producing sound from the throat, as is done by all
other species of animals, cannot be considered language.
However the story narrated in the Taittiréyasaà hitä
(6.4.7.3) is quite interesting for the study of language
among human beings.
There it is said that ‘In ancient times speech was without
grammar (avyäkåt). Then the deväù asked Indra to
codify this speech for them. Indra wished for a boon that â
€˜Väyu should hold it (=speech) in the middle for him.
Then Indra codified the speech (väg) by holding it in the
middle by Väyu.[11] Hence language is called aindravÃ
¤yavaù.[12] Here the help of Väyu ‘to hold the
speech in the middle’ is of seminal importance in the
history of linguistic studies because this is the first ever
mention to codify a language and create a grammar for it by
analyzing it phonetically. The grammar of Indra (Aindra-
vyäkaraëa) is well known but only a little has survived
to us. This incident of codification should be visualized as
the immense work of surveying and sorting out spoken
language/s and standardize (i.e. to refine) it. This primordial
language, as ststed above, was some sort of Präkrit which
was desired by the Devas to be refined (Sanskrit) by Indra
who is known as the first grammarian. Indra undertook the
job and systematically analyzed and standardized it. The
help of Väyu in the process clearly indicates that the
language was phonetically analyzed.  In this process, first
the spoken phrases might have been analysed into words
then these words would have broken into smallest units
which were called ‘Aksaras’ (i.e. non-destructible)
or, phonetically further division of which is not possible.
[13] These, later on, were given the name varëa (the
coloured ones) when the process of writing with ink came
into vogue. The whole alphabet was collectively called â
€˜Aksara Samämnäya’ and ‘Varëa SamämnÃ
¤ya’ (or, Varëamälä). The initial varëa was ‘aâ
€™. The Taittiréya Prätiçäkhya defines ‘varëaâ
€™ as ‘That describe and pronounced are varëa
beginning from ‘a’.[14] Thus the concept of varÃ
«amälä, with vowels and consonants came into
existence where every consonant was supplied with the
initial vowel ‘a’ because a ‘varëa’ could not
be uttered without the help of a vowel; and ‘a’ was
the initial vowel, other varëas are its extension or vikriti.
This is the most scientific arrangement that has come to us
without much modification since millennia. The vedÃ
¤Ã¬ga called ‘Çikñä’ and Prätiçäkhyas
are devoted to the phonetic analysis where the place of the
origin of each individual ‘Aksara’ in the mouth was
determined.


Comparing with Classical Sanskrit,
Vedic Sanskrit had a subjunctive absent in Panini's grammar
and generally believed to have disappeared by then at least
in common sentence constructions. All tenses could be
conjugated in the subjunctive and optative moods, in
contrast to Classical Sanskrit, with no subjunctive and only
a present optative. However, the old first-person
subjunctive forms were used to complete the Classical
Sanskrit imperative. The three synthetic past tenses
(imperfect, perfect and aorist) were still clearly
distinguished semantically in (at least the earliest) Vedic. A
fifth mood, the injunctive, also existed.
Long-i stems differentiate the Devi inflection and the Vrkis
inflection, a difference lost in Classical Sanskrit.
• The subjunctive mood of Vedic Sanskrit was also lost in
Classical Sanskrit. Also, there was no fixed rule about the
use of various tenses (luṇ, laṇ and liṭ).
• There were more than 12 ways of forming infinitives in
Vedic Sanskrit, of which Classical Sanskrit retained only
one form.
• Nominal declinations and verbal conjugation also
changed pronunciation, although the spelling was mostly
retained in Classical Sanskrit. E.g., along with the Classical
Sanskrit's declension of deva- as devas—devau—
dev�s, Vedic Sanskrit additionally allowed the forms
daivas—daiv�—daiv�sas. Similarly Vedic Sanskrit
has declined forms such as asmai, tvai, yuṣmai, tv�,
etc. for the 1st and 2nd person pronouns, not found in
Classical Sanskrit. The obvious reason is the attempt of
Classical Sanskrit to regularize and standardize its grammar,
which simultaneously led to a purge of Old
The pitch accent of Vedic Sanskrit, or Vedic accent for
brevity, is traditionally divided by Sanskrit grammarians
into three qualities, ud�tta "raised" (acute accent, middle
tone), anud�tta "not raised" (grave accent, lower tone)
and svarita "sounded" (circumflex, higher tone).
In Vedic Sanskrit, most of the words have one accented
syllable which is traditionally called ud�tta ("raised") and
written with an acute mark 〈◌�〉 in the
transcription. The position of that accent in inherited words
generally reflects the position of Proto-Indo-European
accent, which means it was free; i.e. not phonologically
predictable from the shape of the word. Some words (finite
verbs of main clauses, vocatives that do not occur sentence-
initially, certain pronouns and particles) do not have an
accented syllable, and only consist of unaccented syllables.
Unaccented syllables are called anud�tta ("not raised")
and are not marked in the transcription. Phonetically,
accented Rigvedic syllable was characterized by height
(rather than prominence) as a "high tone", immediately
falling in the next syllable. This falling tone in the post-tonic
syllable is called svarita ("sounded"). For example, in the
first pada of the
Independent svarita occurs about 1300 times in the
Rigveda, or in about 5% of padas.
In Latin script transcription, ud�tta is marked with an
acute accent, independent svarita is marked with a grave
accent, and other syllables are not marked with accent.
In Devanagari editions of the Rigveda samhita:
• Svarita is marked with a small upright stroke above a
syllable.
• Anud�tta is marked with a horizontal line below the
syllable, if it is next before an ud�tta or an independent
svarita. If the first syllable in a pada is anud�tta, that
syllable and all following syllables which are anud�tta
are marked with the horizontal line, up to and not including
the first syllable which is not an anud�tta.
• If an independent svarita syllable is next before an
ud�tta syllable, instead of putting the anud�tta mark
and the svarita mark on the same syllable, a figure 1 (if the
svarita vowel is short) or a figure 3 (if the svarita vowel is
long) is written between, and that figure has the svarita
mark and the anud�tta mark.[1]
• Other syllables are unmarked.
24    25   26   28   29
1 2 3    4       5      6            7   8      9  10    12       13    14  15   16  17     18       19      20 21  22    23
dvAdazapattraka n. N. of a Yoga or partic. religious
observance in which the 12 syllables.
%{oM@namo@bhagavate@vAsudevAya} are
connected with the 12 signs of the zodiac and with
the 12 months Va1mP.
oM@namo@bhagavate@vAsudevAya
.
     Om Namo Bhagavate Vasudevaya  is a mantra of Krishna or Vishnu. Dhruva used this as his
mantra in his penance. Dhruva was initiated by
Narada into chanting.  
NArada or %{nArada4} m. N. of a Rishi  Ka1n2va , author of RV. viii , 13 ; ix , 104 ; 105 Anukr.
Vasudeva father of Kr2ishn2a, son of S3u1ra , a descendant of Yadu of the lunar line, of a king of
the
Kan2va dynasty Pur. Va1s.   Below Om Namo Bhagavate Vasudevaya written with the Indus
Valley script that is a gotra of the family. This mantra is divided into four parts the first svarita is
the falling pitch found in the articulation of Om.

     Dhruva   N. of an astrol. Yoga ; of the syllable Om Ra1matUp. ; of Brahma1 L. ; of Vishn2u
MBh. ; of S3iva S3ivag. of a Vasu MBh. Hariv. Pur. ; of a son of
Vasu-deva and Rohin2i1 BhP. ;
This famous mantra also known as a "twelve syllable mantra", which believed to be the earliest
mantra from pre-reformation times, pre-dating sectarian divisions in Vaishnavism- (Om namo
bhagavate vasudevaya), it is translated as "Om, reverence to the Lord VÄ�sudeva (Krishna)".   
Once, some young Yadavas played a prank with Sage
Kanva, which caused the downfall of the
Yadavas.  In course of time all the Yadavas developed enemity among themselves and killed each
other with those sharp-edged reeds.  Kanva Shakha  is the oldest shakha ("branch") of Shukla
Yajurveda. Same as Krishna's last battle the son's of Yadu got drunk and were fixed on an enternal
enemity Krishna turns his back on it and they kill each other.
medhAtithi m. N. of a Ka1n2va (author of RV. 1 , 12-23 , viii , 1 &c.) RV. viii , 8 , 20 ; of the
father of Kan2va MBh. R. ; of a son of Manu Sva1ya1nbhuva Hariv. ; of one of the 7 sages under
Manu Sa1varn2a ib.
medhyAtithi m. N. of a R2ishi (a Ka1n2va and author of RV. viii , 1 , 3-29 ; 3. 33 ; ix , 41-43)
Anukr. (cf. %{medha4tithi} and %{maidhyAtitha}).
medhya mf(%{A})n. (fr. %{medha}) full of sap , vigorous , fresh , mighty , strong AV. ; fit for a
sacrifice or oblation , free from blemish (as a victim) , clean , pure ,  Br. Mn. MBh. &c.
azvamedha m. the horse-sacrifice (a celebrated ceremony , the antiquity of which reaches back
to the Vedic period ; the hymns RV. i , 162 and 163 [= VS. xxii seqq.]
T.P. Verma on Varna Samamnaya
Bhagavate
bhagIratha
dvAdazamAsika mfn. consisting of 12 months Ka1ran2d2.
dvAdazapattraka n. N. of a Yoga or partic. religious observance in
which the
12 syllables
%{
oM@namo@bhagavate@vAsudevAya}
are connected with the
12 signs of the zodiac and with the 12
months
Va1mP.
Aditya (Pa1n2. 4-1 , 85) mfn. belonging to or coming from Aditi
TS. ii , 2 , 6 , 1 S3Br. &c. [137,2] ; and in the period of the
Bra1hman2as twelve , as representing the sun in the
twelve months
of the year S3Br. iv , 5 , 7 , 2 , &c.) ;
rAdha m. or n. = %{rA4dhas} , a gift , favour (only in
%{rAdhAnAm@patiH}N. of Indra) RV. ; m. (fr. %{rAdhA}) N. of
the month Vais3a1kha (= April-May) Ra1jat. ; of a man Buddh. ;
(with %{gautama}) N. of two teachers Cat. ; (%{A}) f. see below.
saMvatsara m. (rarely n. ; cf. %{pari-v-}) a full year , a year
(having
12 [TS.] or 13 [VS.] months or 360 days [S3Br. AitBr.
Sus3r.] ; %{am} , `" for a year ; %{eNa} `" after or in course of a
yñyear "' ; %{e} or %{asya} , after or within a yñyear "') RV.
&c. &c. ; a year of the Vikrama era (see above ; %{varSa} is used
for the %{zaka}) the first in a cycle of five or six years TS.
Pa1rGr2. VarBr2S. BhP. ; the Year personified (having the new and
full moon for eyes and presiding over the seasons) TS. Pur. ; N. of
S3iva MBh.
vaizAkha m. (fr. %{vi-zAkhA}) one of the 12 months constituting
the Hindu1 lunar year (answering to April-May and in some places ,
with
Caitra , reckoned as beginning the year) S3Br. La1t2y. MBh.
&c. ; a churning-stick S3is3. xi , 8 ; the seventh year in the 12 years
"' cycle of Jupiter VarBr2S. ; (%{A}) f. N. of a lioness Cat. ; (%{I})
f. (with or scil. %{
paurNamAsI}) the day of full moon in the
month Vais3a1kha Gr2S3rS. MBh. &c. ; a kind of red-flowering
Punarnava1 L. ; N. of a wife of
Vasu-deva Hariv. VP. ; n. a partic.
attitude in shooting Hariv. ; N. of a town (also %{-pura}) Katha1s. ;
mf(%{I})n. relating to the month Vais3a1kha S3a1n3khGr2.
mAdhava mf(%{I})n. (fr. %{madhu} ; f. %{A} only in
%{mAdhavA} [= %{madh
avyA}] %{tanUH} Pa1n2. 4-4 , 129
Sch.) relating to spring , vernal Hariv. Vikr. Katha1s. ; belonging or
peculiar to the descendants of Madhu i.e. the
Ya1davas Hariv. ;
representing Kr2ishna (as a picture) Hcat. ; M. N. of the second
month of spring (more usually called
Vais3a1kha , = April-May) TS.
&c. &c. spring Ka1v.of one of the
7 sages under Manu Bhautya
Ma1rkP. ; of the hero of Bhava-bhu1ti's drama Ma1lati1-ma1dhava
   
deva mf(%{i})n. (fr. 3. %{div}) heavenly , divine (also said of
terrestrial things of high excellence) RV. AV. VS. S3Br. (superl. m.
%{deva4-tama} RV. iv , 22 , 3 &c.often reckoned as 33 , either 11
for each of the 3 worlds RV. i , 139 , 11 &c. [cf. %{tri-daza}] , or 8
Vasus , 11 Rudras , and
12 A1dityas [to which the 2 As3vins must
be added] Br. ; cf. also DivyA7v. 68 ;
AraNyagAna n. one of the four
Ga1nas or hymn-books of the
Sa1ma-veda.
UhyagAna n. N. of the fourth Ga1na
or hymn-book of the Sa1ma-veda.
The Ashvamedha (Sanskrit: aÅ›
vamedhá; "horse sacrifice") was one
of the most important royal rituals of
Vedic religion, described in detail in the
Yajurveda (TS 7.1-5, VSM 22-25
Ralph Thomas Hotchkin Griffith, The
Texts of the White Yajurveda.
Translated with a Popular Commentary
(1899), 1987 reprint.. of horse
sacrifice, notably in hymns RV 1.162-
163 (which are themselves known as ),
but does not allude to the full ritual
according to the Yajurveda. As per
Brahma Vaivarta Purana (185.180),
Quoted in Many
Bhuti
Vaisakha
madhavyA
Bhuti
Above the glyph of man with a staff.  
ASADha: Pala1s3a wood (carried by
the
student during the performance of
certain vows) L. ; N. of a teacher
Ka1t2h. S3Br. i (cf. %{ASADhi}) ;
anta-asadha-purva
or pinva
Nakshatra   
Uttar-ashadha
The sons of Sagara discover the stolen sacrificial horse grazing near
Vasudeva, who had assumed the form of Kapila.
When Vasudeva and his wife Devaki were being driven by King Kansa in a
chariot, "a voice in the sky, sounding loud and deep like thunder, addressing
Kansa, said, 'Fool that you are, the eighth child of the damsel you are now
driving shall take away your life!'" Kansa hearing this drew his sword, and
was about to slay Devaki; but Vasudeva interposed, saying, "Kill not Devaki,
great warrior! Spare her life, and I will deliver to you every child she may
bring forth." Kansa, appeased with this promise, spared the lady, but, to
prevent any mistake, placed a guard by day and night over their apartments;
and as child after child was born, it was given up to him and slain.
Kansa was under the impression that he had destroyed Devaki's children, but
this was not the case. The children that were handed over to him were
children of Hiranyakasipu, whom Vishnu slew as the Man-Lion, who were
brought from the nether regions by Yoganindra, "the great illusory energy of
Vishnu," and lodged in Devaki's womb in order that the cruel Kansa might be
overreached. Vishnu said to this goddess: "Go, Nidra (Sleep), to the nether
regions, and by my command conduct successively six of their princes to be
conceived by Devaki. When these shall have been put to death by Kansa, the
seventh conception shall be formed of a portion of Sesha (the serpent-deity),
who is part of me; and this
you shall transfer before the time of birth to Rohini, another wife of
Vasudeva, who resides at Gokula." This child was Balar�ma. "The report
shall run that Devaki miscarries. I will myself become incarnate in her eighth
conception; and you shall take a similar character as the embryo offspring of
Yasoda, the wife of a herdsman named Nanda. In the night of the eighth of
the dark half of the month Nabhas I shall be born; and you will be born on
the ninth. Impelled and aided by my power, Vasudeva shall bear me to the
bed of Yasod�, and you to the bed of Devaki. Kansa shall take you and
hold you up to dash you against a stone; but you shall escape into the sky,
where Indra shall meet and do homage to you through reverence of me."
kapAla , a cup ,
jar , dish (used
especially for the
Purod2a1s3a
offering) TS.
S3Br. Sus3r.  
%{paJca-kapAla}
, &c.) ;
kApila mf(%{I})n. (fr. %{kapila}) , peculiar or
belonging to or derived from Kapila MBh. R. ;
of a tawny or brownish colour L. ; m. a follower
of the teacher Kapila , follower of the
Sa1n3khya system of philosophy (founded by
Kapila) MBh. xii
Ka1vya7d. Hcar.
paJcakapAla (%{pa4Jca}.) mf(%{i})n.
prepared or offered in five cups or bowls m.
(with or , sc. %{
puro-dAza}) an oblation so
offered S3Br. S3rS.
manvantara. N. of various festivals (of the 10th
day of the light half of the month
A1sha1d2ha ,
kapilAzva m. `" having brown horses "'N. of
Indra L. ; N. of a man MBh. BhP. &c.
kapilaka mf(%{ikA})n. reddish Sus3r.
bradhna mfn. (of doubtful origin Un2. iii , 5)
pale red , ruddy , yellowish , bay (esp. as the
colour of a horse , but also applied to
Soma and
the
Purod2a1s3a) RV. TS. ; great , mighty
Naigh. iii , 3 ; m. the sun RV. AV. Mn. iv , 231
(cf. %{viSTap}) ; the world of the sun TBr.
(Sch.) ; a horse Naigh. i , 14 ;
puroDAza m. id. AV. &c. &c. (RTL. 367) ; any
oblation Mn. v , 23 ; the leavings of an offering
L. ;
Soma juice L. ; a prayer recited while
offering oblations in fire Pa1n2. Sch. ; %{-tA} f.
state or condition of an oblation ; acc. with
%{nI} , to offer in fire , burn Pa1rvat. ;
dAnupinva mfn. swelling with drops (Soma) ib.
pinva mfn. causing to swell or flow (see
%{dAnu-p-}).
pinvamAna and mfn. swollen , swelling , full
S3Br
aSADha %{pinvA@and@uttara} (or in RV.
%{a4-SAlha}) mfn. not to be overcome ,
invincible RV. VS. ; born under the Nakshatra
Asha1d2ha1 Pa1n2. 4-3 , 34 ; m. the month
(generally called) A1sha1d2ha L. ; a staff made
of Pala1s3a wood (carried by the student during
the performance of certain vows) L. ; N. of a
teacher Ka1t2h. S3Br. i (cf. %{ASADhi}) ;
(%{A}) f. N. of a brick (used for the sacrificial
altar) S3Br. ; (%{A4@or@A4s}) f. sg. or pl.N.
of two lunar mansions (distinguished as
%{
pinvA@and@uttara} , `" the former "' and
the latter "' , and reckoned either as the
eighteenth and nineteenth [TBr.] or as the
twentieth and twenty-first [VP.&c.]) AV. xix , 7
, 4 , &c. [116,2]
%{paJca-kapAla}