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Indo-European Sanskrit decipherment of the
Indus Valley script
         I found that the Indus Valley used images of the star constellations for their part hieroglyphic
script. The Sanskrit dictionary explains the constellation Taurus as a fish. The Indus sign that I
found for Taurus is a fish that employs all of the brightest stars of the constellation. Taurus is where
today the ecliptic reaches its highest point at the 6th hour degree. In the time of the Indus Valley the
highest point was in Leo today's 12th degree. Taurus was the most important constellation of the
Vedic people.  In the time of the Indus (3300-2600BC and it's flowering around 2600-2000BC)
the vernal equinox passes through Taurus. The vernal equinox is the point at which the sun crosses
the celestial equator, all stars are measured from this point (spring equinox). In 3360BC the vernal
equinox was at the 5th hour degree ( in the link to Taurus constellation above  the 5th hour degree
is the second line from the left passing through Taurus) than in 2295BC it was on the 4th hour
degree. The name of their astronomical system was named after Taurus (Rohakshiti astronomical
system). The Indus signs in black are the pictorial averages of the images on the seals. Pictorial
images of seals; Asko Parpola concordance Indus Valley Seals.                                
    This web site is a decipherment of the Indus Valley script.  The Indus Valley and or Harappan
culture are the archaeological names of the largest Early Bronze Age nation located in Pakistan and
part of India. The Indus Valley script is found on their import and export shipping seals. These
seals were made by etching an image into a square cut rock, then pressing it into clay (illustration
of Indus seal on link above).
       I found that the Indus Valley script signs matched the star constellations along the ecliptic. The
Indus script has an established visual relationship with the Polynesian Easter Island script. The
Polynesian's used the stars to navigate, the use of the same pictorial image of the stars points to a
very old navigational system. These constellations I then matched to the old Sanskrit names for
those constellations. Then I fit the Vedic names of those constellations into a Sanskrit sentence
structure within the Indus seals. The first time sealing (Mudra) is mentioned in early Sanskrit
writings pertained to the illegality of putting false dates on their seals, so I began looking for dates
within the sentence structure of the seals. The constellations used in early Sanskrit dating were
called lunar mansions as today the house the moon is within (the 'Ecliptic') has to do with the
Zodiac constellation. They used 27 constellations for two calendars called Nakshatra and
Saptarisa. The Sanskrit names of constellations from their calendar were directly used in the early
Indo-European phonetic scripts this I illustrate on the Linear B and Cypriot script's evolution page
(link below). Pages 3 through 22 of this site are the text to this decipherment, each page illustrates
the Indus sign the constellation it represents, what the word means and how it's phonetic sound fits
in the Sanskrit sentences structure of the seals. Page 23 is a visual relationship between the Hittite
hieroglyphic and Indus script.  Pages 24 through 27 are a relationship between the early Chinese
hieroglyphic signs that evolved into their phonetic and radicals and the Indus script. Page 27 is a
relationship between the Indo-European Cypriot script and the Chinese script.
Key to the calendar is the link  Rohina-system.
  Daniel F. Salas      Email-admin@indoeurohome.com     
      Sanskrit is the classical language of India, in translating the Indus Valley script using Sanskrit
the Indus becomes the first great Indo-European nation. The concept of the Indo-European is
one of Archaeology's oldest and most strife-ridden mysteries. The debate over the location of the
original source (Homeland or Proto Indo-Europeans) is 200 years old.  In 1786, English scholar
Sir William Jones realized that Latin and Greek shared a common origin with the Sanskrit
language. The ancient language of Vedic Sanskrit is the earliest part of an evolution of India's
religious texts. For many years after Sir William Jones's discovery, scholars came to the
consensus that the origins of this new found language group was Indic or Sanskrit, based upon
Sanskrit's archaic structure. Today the theories are too numerous to be mentioned for the
homeland.  Since Sir William Jones's findings of; Latin (Italy), Greek (Greece) and Sanskrit
(India) being linked , linguists have added most of the languages of Europe and those directly
west of India; Pakistan and Iran. Pakistan and a small part of India is the location of the
archaeological ruins of the Indus Valley civilization. These same ruins were known about and
written about in the Veda ( the Vedic Age), where in the Veda it mentions being written down in
Pakistan (Called Sindhu) on the seven rivers (upper Indus Valley) of the Indus.
       In this decipherment of the Indus Valley script I found the hieroglyphic sign for the chariot,
this made me look for the words use in the early Indo-European language.  If the word chariot
was used as a technical word for an object. This would determine when the language group
started. Technical words place a marker in time thru the artifacts archaeological date.  Examples
are the Indo-European languages familiarity with wheeled vehicles, such as wagons and carts.
This could not have happened before 4000BCE, because of the dates of their invention in
archaeology. These technical terms include two words for the wheel, a word for the axle, a word
for the thill or harness-pole and a verb meaning 'to ride in a vehicle'. The chariot first appears in
history around 2300BCE.  I looked for an association around the Indic word for chariot. The
Indic or Sanskrit word for chariot is 'Ratha'.  This word would have preceded the division of the
Indo-Europeans.  The Old Persian word for chariot 'ratha' and the old Persian warrior 'rathestar'
and in the Avesta the oldest Persian religious text 'ratho' means vehicle and chariot. In Europe,
the Old Church Slavonic word 'rati' means war or battle. The Serbian word for war 'rat' and the
Old Irish word for vehicle 'roth', the Irish word to attack 'ruathar'  are associated.  The Lithuanian
word to uproot 'rautereti', the Greek word to ride 'a-rith-mos' with the Greek word to destroy
'rhaio' are connected. The Latin word to rage 'e-rotos' the English 'riot' and the Latin wheel and
chariot 'rota', thus the Latin word to cast down 'rutus' are connected.  Latin's 'rota' and the close
association to 'ratha' follows Latin's staunch conservativism towards change. The German word
for chivalry 'ritter-linchkeit' and the German word for Knight 'ritter' the German word to destroy
'aus-rotten' with the German word for savoir 'retten' are connected.  The Celtic chariot 'ca-rros'
an amalgamation of the Sanskrit 'ca' meaning both (as in the english prefix co-dependent) and
ratha that became the wheel (both wheels cha-riot). The English Cha-riot is a loan word, with the
Old Briton 'car'.  These associations can then be grouped with the military word to 'route' an
enemy; French 'deroute', Spanish 'rota' and the German 'ronde'. The first time historically the
word Ratha is used as chariot is around 1650BCE with the Hurrians of the Middle East. These
Hurrian's had hundreds of Vedic Sanskrit loan words. These associations and the established
associations of the Indo-European groups are similar; Sanskrit 'Ayas' meaning metal shifts to
bronze in Latin's 'Aes' and becomes 'Iron' in the German 'Eisen';. The Sanskrit 'father'; is 'pater'
German 'vater' and Latin 'pater' this word was best saved jumping to the word 'pater-nal' in
English. The Sanskrit word 'satem' means one hundred, the Latin word is 'centum' it jumps but
stays within the same subject matter in the English words 'century' and 'centennial'. Many times
these associations are loan words of a later date, but they can point to the Sanskrit word being
saved better in a sister language.   
    For the reader unfamiliar with the concept of the Indo-European I would like to give a brief
explanation: language grouping through linguistics separate the languages of the world by basic
vocabulary and grammatical inflections.  Common names for objects, verbs, numbers and names
(example of the Indo-European numbers 1-9 below).  Today there are some 10,000 linked words
that should be found in the original Indo-European language. The larger Non-Indo-European
languages of the world are: Semitic-whose origins are the Middle East ( Hebrew, Arabic); the
languages of China; the Uralic languages of Europe ( Finnish, Hungarian, Estonian, Livonian, the
Ugic and Samoyed families); and the large African groups.  One clue to who the first
Indo-Europeans of Europe were can be found within the Uralic languages (the non Indo-European
language of Europe) words for farm animals and certain numbers within the Uralic group point to
Sanskrit names.   Within the Indo-European languages (basically from India to Europe), there is a
striking resemblance that cannot plausibly be explained as coincidences, or as the result of
borrowing among prehistoric languages which were not derived from a "single" ancestor (quote
from Sir William Jones).  This quote holds true today, with the big question "where or how did all
these different languages of today get this common
origin?"                                                                                                                            
Sanskrit   Welsh    Yazdi                   Irish     Scottish   Latin   German     English
--------------------------eka          yek      ya                      haon        aon       una      
eins             one
dva        due        du                        do           dha      duo       twei            two
 tri         trin        sev                       tri           tri       tria       thrijiz           three
catur       shtor     chunr                 ceathair    ceithir    Uuattuar   ---             four
panca      pansh    panj                      cuig         coig      quique   funf              five
sas         shov      shash                     se           sia        sex       sechs             six
sapta      estor     ------       ----        seacht      seachd   septem  sieben             seven
ashata      oster      -----       ----         hocht       ochd       octo      acht              eight
nava        neber   -----         ----         naoi         ------    novem      neun            nine
  
      The Indo-European language group also includes several extinct languages.  The Hittite
language, deciphered through archaeology as the spoken language of Anatolia (Turkey) from
about 2000-1000 BCE.  The Tocharian's, a group of languages spoken in China until 800AD.
The Tocharian language was saved in Buddhist monasteries and caravan cities of the Tarim
Basin.  The Tarim Basin is located in west China above the Himalayan Mountains that are above
the Indus Valley. The relationship between China's early signs and the Indus signs (pages 24-27
links above) clearly show that those signs came from the direction of the Indus Valley.

      The Indo-European Success story starts with the Hittites of Anatolia 2000BCE. They were
the first great historical Indo-European nation rivaling both Egypt and Mesopotamia.  The origins
of the Hittite's in archaeology is under debate.  The closest match traces artifacts across the
Steppe to Khazakhestan this area would include the Early Andronovo  (2300BCE).
      I believe the Early Andronovo were the Gutian's that sacked Mesopotamia around
2300BCE, this destruction ran from Syria to the Danube river (Early Bronze Age 2 and 3).  I
believe the Andronovo were prior to the Indo-European's of the Indus, this would explain the
Hittite's large substrate interference.
    The territory of the Indus Valley overlaps Andronovo territory in Afghanistan, with a similar
metallurgy.  Where-as the Indo-European languages of Europe and again the Middle East I
believe is the result of an unknown disaster that hits the Indus Valley civilization some time before
1800BCE, causing a total abandonment of the site. The central authority or people that organized
the Indus leave and the bead makers take over the palaces.  Here I would like to say that when a
site is not totally abandoned it will never be known the true time of the central authority's
abandonment.
      After the abandonment in India you see large groups of nomadic tribes with ties to the Indus.  
It appears the river's source shifted or the agricultural damming of the Indus river caused a
sediment build up over the ages where the water is now running underground and today the Indus
Valley is a desert. Many early sites of the Indus Valley can't be accessed due to this ground
water.  The Indus Valley had the highest standard of living in the world, this standard leaves the
entire region not to reappear until modern times.
        In Europe around the same time the Srubnaya culture pushes into Europe and out of the
Andronova culture  around 1800BCE.  The Srubnaya totally assimilate the Yamanaya culture (a
substrate culture) and yet they are almost identical to the Andronovo culture. This coincides with
the end of the known archaeological cultures of Europe (T.B.R, Globalar Amphil, Corded Ware,
Yamanaya cultures).  I believe the migration out of the Indus started as early as 2300BCE, they
then first settling in Andronovo territory this was where they became an industrial war machine
and a change in the language as Sanskrit and the possible original language combine.  Around
2300BCE in the Indus there are signs of trouble with the destruction of their grain silos and a
complete change in the type of grain diet.
     In the Indus Valley (Pakistan) today there is a language called Dravidian that  the
Indo-Europeans separate geographically. This and the Vedic preoccupation with the horse
suggests a possible origin other then the Indus before 3000BCE.  For if the language evolved into
Sanskrit in the Indus Valley and then spread out and changed other languages the question is
before the evolution where did it come from. They appear to me to be early Andronovo.  The
Andronovo is a good candidate for the original homeland that would make the Hittites language
close to half of the original and explain why the Hittite language stands by itself. Page 25 is a map
of both events; Hittites entering Anatolia coming from Andronovo territory towards the end of
2300BCE and the Srubnaya entering Europe around 1800BCE.
     After the Indo-European Hittites, came the Persians of Iran first recorded historically in
860BCE. The first recorded trouble between the Indo-Europeans of Iran and the Semitic's Iraq
was 860BCE (for 2866 years the border has been the same).   Next, the Indo-European Greeks
(330BCE) destroy their brothers, the Persian's. Then brothers Roman destroy brothers Greek.
After came a list of influential Indo-Europeans: Germans, Russians, French, Dutch, English and
Spanish.  The direction of these empires points east and the Indus Valley.  The population of the
easterly group of Indo-European nations (India, Pakistan, Iran,) is roughly 1,230,000,000.  This
large population reflects it's time in the region.

     The Indus Valley civilization for its time was the most modern nation of earth, with sewers that
ran through-out the cities.  Garbage in the Indus was hauled to a dump as today, where-as in
Egypt and Mesopotamia for another 2000 years or more the garbage was thrown just outside the
house and an open sewer ran along the street.  The two main cities of Harappan and
Mohenjo-daro were built preplanned with carefully laid out north, south, east and west grid like
patterns.  Large scale planning of grain storages that is not seen again until Roman times.  Kiln
fired bricks that are to this day being used as building material. Bricks were repeatedly mentioned
in the Veda. Their production was a holy ritual. The Indus had the most modern shipping dock in
the world that could raise and lower ships into the dock with the tide.  One dock was 700 feet
long and made of brick. In metallurgy the findings were household vessels, weapons and state of
the art tools for farming, with signs of plowed fields. They were the first to cultivate cotton.  
Sewers with baths that were in many houses and public baths, it appears every one was housed
and cared for by the large number of small rooms for their workers this is not seen any where else
they were the "first Civilized nation".  They were familiar with various manufacturing techniques,
such as hammering and the use of simple and complex molds. Trade was conducted with the
Middle East, China and Southeast Asia. Trade with China led me to find the early connection with
their written scripts.  Among the sculptures that were found, a bronze statuette of a dancing girl.  
The weapons were spears, arrowheads, knives, axes and pins. The population was larger than
Mesopotamia and Egypt put together: this would fit with the impact on the Middle East and
Europe. They were an organized people able to take and maintain acquired lands.  It would make
sense that the people who spread a language to so many nations came from a more advanced
culture, with a long period of stability.  They acquired the organizational skills and technologies
needed in warfare, farming, and the perfection of a language so different languages (substrate
language) could absorb it. The most common trait of the Indo-Europeans is and was organization.  
The language in my opinion was "imposed" on the different substrate languages. Like the Hittites,
with clear signs of a destruction and with clear signs of a different substrate language, the Persian's
absorb the well established Elamite people. Surely this did not happen peacefully (substrate
language of Iran is the Elamite language that had to have affected the Persian language).  The
migration north to water and into Andronovo territory appears nonviolent because little change
happened except an increased population. This is the time you see horses and chariot's being
buried with kings in Andronovo territory.  The type of chariots were of the Shang dynasty type. It
was the Indus Valley that traded with China.
    The Asvamedha (Horse-drunk) was the greatest Vedic Sacrifice. The ritual is a pair of horses
pulling a chariot in a race. Then after the race the horse on the right side of the team is than
sacrificed.  This Vedic ritual bears a striking resemblance to the Roman "October-equas" sacrifice
(equas is Latin for horse). In the Roman ritual there was a chariot race in October. Then, the
horse on the right side was speared.  The Asvamedha also had a time of the year associated with
it: spring (medha).  The Hittite's had a ritual where there was a horse on the right side and a mule
on the left.  The Asvamedha ends with the horse being butchered and offered as three sacrifices.
In Medieval Ireland, the kings of Ulster sacrificed a mare and ate it in a very unpleasant drunken
manor.  The Indic word for drunk is "medhu" the Gaulish drunk is "Meduos" and the Gaulish
horse is "Epo", a Gaulish personal name is "epo-meduos" (Asvamedha).  The association with the
horse on the right side and the name for the chariot Ratha; the German "right" "recht" and the
French "deroit" that is similar to the association of the word "route". The Gaulish drunk "meduos"
Greek "methy" Old Church Slavonic "medus" Lithuanian "medus" English "mead" can then be
associated with the Iranian "Medes" of the Zagaros.  The Assyrians record the Medes around
modern Isfahan in the Zagros mountains (Iran) around 836BCE.  Berossos was a Mesopotamian
historian made famous through the Greeks.  In his king list he wrote that the Gutians were the
Medes, 8 kings that lasted 244 years (2300BCE-2076BCE).  Berossos statement was what he
saw in his time, this is after Sindhu tribes moved north into Gutian territory and the statement links
the Indo-European Medes and the time the Hittite's enter Anatolia.  In fact there is no doubt there
was an Indic presence in Mesopotamia towards the end of the first dynasty of Babylon
1600BCE. Thus from 2300 BCE to 860 BCE the language evolved into the Medes that would
have been similar to the early Persian language.  The Mitanni kingdom had Hurrians (Horites in
the Bible) with many Indic personal names like Indra, Vayu, Svar, Soma, Deva and Rta.  They
had Indic technical terms used in connection with horse breeding and chariot racing. These
technical terms include the Indic numbers 1,3,5,7 and 9.  Other personal names are Biridaswa
'Possessing great horses', Sattawaza 'he who has won seven prizes' (at a horse race). A look at
this area that I believe the Gutians came from: Afghanistan ( the location of the Andronovo culture
today is Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tagikistan, Kazakhstan then north into the Western
Siberian plain of Russia (they were huge) reveals rivers names that are early Indic, they include
Sanskrit names of rivers that are in Sindhu.  The name of the Afghan river "Kabul" Indic "Kubha",
Afghan "Swat" Indic "Suvastu", Afghan "Kurram" Indic "Krumu" Afghan "Gumal" Indic "Gomati"
and the most famous river of the Vedic Age the "Sarasviti" Afghan "Harovaiti" (the S to H shift is
the most recognized change from Indic to all Indo-Europeans languages of Asia and the Middle
East).
     The conventional theory of today holds that the  Indo-Iranian presence of India, Pakistan and
Iran came from Eastern Europe around 1600BCE.  How is it that in the Veda every river of the
Indus is named, where it is today a desert in Pakistan?.  Why does the Veda state that there was
a Vedic Age in Sindhu yet after 1800BCE there is no evidence of even a small population living
on the dried rivers in the desert of Pakistan.  The Saravati river in archaeology was the start of
the abandonment.  This was the middle of the mature phase of the Indus Saraviti civilization
radiocarbon dated to 27000-2000BCE. What is ambiguous to me is the archeaological name of
the site was named after the Vedic name of that river. After the assimilation of the Elamites, the
Persian's recorded prior to Iran as having lived on the Harovaiti river in the north.  How is it that
in the science of archeaology their is a statement of an Indo-European invasion of India around
1500BCE?  This statement is without any scientific proof. It shuts the door on the possibility of
the Indic presence being the Indus culture .  At Bactria NorthWest Afghanistan there are
alabaster plates decorated with a humped bull in the Indus or Harappan style. At Bactrian graves
there are Harappan steatite seals, etched Carnelian beads, a cosmetic flacon having an exact
parallel at Chanhudaro, pins with spiral and metal mirrors that parallel ones found in the Indus.
        The Hittite's were the first Indo-Europeans recorded in history. The second Indo-Europeans
recorded were the Indic branch (Sanskrit). Within the recorded history of Mesopotamia and
Egypt, Sanskrit words and names start appearing around 1700BCE. These Sanskrit words were
found in such numbers that they became a historical fact: the two main groups associated were the
non Indo-European Hurrian's and Mitanni. The Hurrian's learned new technologies and Indic
names from these Indo-Europeans, thus receiving Sanskrit loan words. One of those Hurrian
words was the chariot recorded as "ratta".  The main area of the Middle-East of these Vedic
words was Israel and that is where a spear-head was found at Geyer in Palestine dated to the
eighteenth dynasty that exactly matches ones found in Chandole and Navdatoli of India. The
Hurrian word for chivalry was called "mariyanna", the parallel Indic word "Maryana" was called
young warrior. This words endless use in battles of the Middle East has been taken up in depth by
modern history. The chariot historically appears around 2300BCE, same time as the destruction
layer of Early Bronze Age 2 and 3, this destruction ran from Syria to the Danube river ( possible
original Indo-Europeans). This happened 300 years prior to the appearance of the organized
Hittite nation in 2000BCE.  Just like the wheel the chariot puts a marker in time.
        The Veda mentioned earlier as a religious text saved as the oldest part of the Hindhu texts
(Hindhu the word originates from Sindhu the Indus Valley). Those Hurrian and Mitanni words
found through archaeology in Mesopotamia and Egypt that were Sanskrit, have been established
as Vedic Sanskrit (the oldest version of the evolution of their language). Thus those words showed
the first established changes from Indic to the Indo-European languages of the Middle East and
Asia. Words like Rta-dharma, where Rta means fixed or established the Veda states it was
composed (established) in Sindhu (Indus Valley). The established right side horse appears prior to
the Indus with the Hittite's but Rta-Dharma was established in Sindhu. Rta Dharma means
established duty or the 'right' duty as opposed to Karma that is not fixed or established.  Most
people are right handed thus the strongest horse or animal goes on the right side. The Indus Valley
is abandoned before 1800BCE, "Vedic" words start appearing around 1700BCE that is 500 years
prior to the Biblical Exodus of Egypt.
   The implication is the chariot had a key role in the quick spread of this language. For if their
appearance was not the result of borrowing among prehistoric languages and technical words
push the origin ever closer. A military superiority of a migrating people is the answer.