Archaeologically there were two capital cities in the Indus Valley: Meluhhu: Archaeologic site:
Mohenjo-Daro, and the capital of the Arian state (Arya Dilhi) Dilmun Archaeologic site Harappa.  The
map below was taken from the book Indus Seals from Ur, other West Asian and Minor Harappan Sites.
The map shows the large area of trade the Indus Valley had. Note below the large trading within
Andronova terittory. Most seals used in export by the Indus Valley were round and the seals used within
the Indus were square. The round export seals show up all over Mesopotamia centurys before the national
seals started employment (2500BCE) within the Indus valley. One of those round seals found at Ur
predates exspected dates of the Harappan culture. The map below shows the Indus Valley as Meluhha a
major trader with Mesopotamia in the Agade period (2300 BCE). Meluhha traded Ivory, Lapis the
minerial mined in Afganistan by the Harappan culture, Pecocks and Indus Beads that were found from
Mesopotamia to Ireland. Meluhha was mentioned in the early Sanskrit writings as Melukha, as in Krishna
Melukha, comentary stated they spoke the same language thus Sanskrit's substrate languages are
proto-versions of Tamil, Austric, Munda, these languages had to have effected the major language thru
time.   As today the people along coastal lands have a darker complextion, this stems from a huge migration
out of Africa, ending some time around 10,000 BCE where the Sahara became a desert, this people
colonized lands all the way to Austrailia. The northern state (the name state means Deli in Sanskrit) of the
Indus was different to the south in respect to trade, goods and services (the land of the 7 rivers known as
Sindhu in the Veda that was seprate from Melukha thus in the Manusmruti the languages are classified as
Mleccha vaacas and Arya vaacas that is, lingua franca and laterary Sanskrit 'this was taken from below') .
      I believe the upper Indus was known to Mesopotamia as Dilmun (the land of paradise to the
Mesopotamians). The paradise story matchs with the Indus culture, it being most modern nation on Earth at
the time. The Mesopotamians get the chariot around 2300BCE, thus beyond reasonable thought the Indus
had to know of the chariot, because they were their largest trading partener. The Mesopotamian's say that
the prophet of the flood; Noah (Sanskrit Manu) went to Dilium (the religion went to Dilium, because the
referance to Noha is in past tense). According to the Mesopotamian's the land of Dilium was saved from
the flood, thus giving the ability for Dilium to rebuild Mesopotamia and give them thier calendar. Dilium as in
New Dilhi where Dili means state in Sanskrit and the Old Persian Sassanid Empire "Dil-i Iranshahr" means
Iran's heart, , Sanskrit "Arian state", Arian defined in Sanskrit as noble farmer the Bronze Age the farming
age.  The founding of New Dilhi was prior to the Mahabharata war (Maha means great and Bharata is
India), this is prior to the Vedic Age and a recorded famine was prior to the war for India.
 The Indus traded with Andronovo from Kur zar-duga to
the Arial lake. Once the Indus river dried up the natural
route to water is north around the Caspian and Arial lakes.

    The Mesopotaimian's wrote that the land of Dilmun
escaped the flood where the seven rivers are high on the
Indus river and not on the coast as this map is showing ,
they also wrote that it was the land of paridise this matches
the archeaologic standard of living found of the Indus
The Indus seals were made with three parts; a date that
uses the stars, a pictorial hieroglyphic image that had to do
with the contant shipped (discussion below) and last a
abstract image that had to do with distination or origin of

This is a referance to an E-mail I got from the Sarasvati
Research Centre;  Subject: Bharatiya languages: history
and formation of jati-bhaasha

INDIA, September 17, 2006: In yesterday's HPI,we
mentioned about this book:

Kalyanaraman, S, 2006, Bharatiya Languages--history and
formation of Jaati-bhasha -- Sarasvati hieroglyphs as
mlecchita vikalpa (Decipherment of the Indus script),
Bangalore, Babasaheb (Umakanta Keshav) Apte Smarak
Samiti, 652pp. It includes an up- to-date and
comprehensive corpus of inscriptions of Sarasvati
civilawation (indus Script) -- including finds of the year
2000 season, proto-elamite parallels, artifacts in museums
and mss. of Schoyen collection.
The work discovers some lexemes of the Meluhha language and tags
them to epigraphs of Indus script, containing hieroglphs. A few
'rosetta stones' validate the decipherment.
Through the entire corpus of about 4,000 epigraphs is included the
document, only one instance of a broken seal (chipped in a corner)
is-used as reconstructed by Huntington. This is a seal which shows a
face with tiger's mane ligatured to a person seated in a yogic posture
and surrounded by a set of animals. Yes, there are many cracked
pottery which also comtain epigraphs. Tigers's mane =cu_l.a; rebus:
furnace. person seated in penance =kamad.ha; rebus: kampat.t.a
'mint'. Face =mukha; rebus: mu-ha 'ingot'. In the contewt of Iranica,
there is an Akkadian cylinded seal which shows aa Meluhhan
merchant who required an interpreter. This indicates that Meluhhan
was a non-Akkadian language. A substrate language has however
been reconised from terms such as tibira 'merchant'; sanga 'priest'--
words which have cognates in Bharatiya languages.
Muhly, the archaeo-metallurgist scholar notes that Meluhha supplied
tin to Mesopotamia. The general identification of Meluhhu as Baloch
region is concordant with early Amri-Nal culture in the Makran coast
(south of Karachi). A cognate term Meluhha is Mleccha which is
mentioned in ancient text such as Manusmruti and Mahabharata. In
the Mahabharata, a miner named Khanaka speaks Mleccha. In
Manusmruti, languages are classified as Mleccha vaacas and Arya
vaacas ( that is, lingua franca and literary Sanskrit).
The objective of the work is to delineate the glosses of mleccha
In addition to the Leluhhan shown on the Akkadian cylinder seal,
there are three other objects with epigraphs: two tin ingots and one
cylinder seal with pictographs. Rebus (Latin: 'by means of things') is a
graphemic expression of the phonetic shape of a word or syllable.The
two tin ingots contain glyphs which do not find any parallels in cretan
but have concordant glyphs in Indus Script. These pictographic
glyphs can be read rebus as related to tin (ran:ku; rebus: antelope ).
On one cylinder seal, a tabernae montana plant is depicted as
identifies by Potts. That tabaerna montana is called tagaraka in many
Bharatiya (Indic) languages; read rebus: tagara, 'tin'.
Only a smith had the competence to inscribe on metal ingots and slso
on bronze tools/weapons, apart from copper plates. Many epigraphs
have been found on such objects. The language mleccha is a
Bharatiya language. Over 2000 lexemes include homonyms depicting
pictographic glyphs (such as rhino, elephant, tiger etc.) and also
substantive repertoire related to a mine or a smithy: furnace types ,
minerals, metals, alloys.
This identification of language lexemes and corresponding glyptic
representation in pictographic writing is primised on the existqance of
a linguistic area circa 2500 BCE. (A linguistic area is recognized as a
region where languages absorb features from one another and make
them their own). Thus, proto-versions of Tamil, Austtric, Munda,
Prakrits, Sanskrit (and over 20 present-day languages in India) have
hundreds of cognates, in particular, related to agriculturai terms and
smithy terms and smithy terms, consistent with the maritime-riverine
civilization along the Indian ocean Rim and with trade transactions
with ANE. Muhly rightly notes the link between the emergence of the
bronze age and the Invention of a writing system.
some background notes are the following URLs (apart from a
7-volume encylopaedic work on Sarasvati Published in 2004):
 Thanks and regards,
                 S. Kalyanaraman,  Ph.D.
                Sarasvati Research Centre
 Meluhhu     Dilmun