The rhinoceros I have alway believed to
be khaDga  and the other image with a
similair glyphs to be Guru and or Guruda.  
a rhinoceros-horn L. ; a Pratyeka-buddha
(so called because he is a solitary being
like a rhinoceros ; cf. %{eka-cara} and
%{-cArin}) L. ; N. of an attendant in
Skanda's retinue MBh. ix , 2569 ; of the
son of a merchant Katha1s. lvi , 151 ;
(%{am}) n. iron L.
khADga mfn. (fr. %{khaDga4}) , coming
from a rhinoceros (as armour made of
rhinoceros hide) S3a1n3khS3r. xiv , 33 ,
zrIgoSThImAhAtmya n. N. of wks

Brahman srotriya aksarä style
Sanskrit Gotra may come from Gotama ?
Probably sons of Gotama. N. of a R2ishi
belonging to the family of Angiras with the
patr. Ra1hu1-gan2a (author of RV. i ,
74-93) RV. AV
Agrayana codifiys Tamil and Sanskrit ;that
was a pre-Paninian school.
A Rishi thus a singer in the Veda and he
how hears the words of the divine.
The Indus script lasted for 1400+/- years,
at it's start the script was a full developed
from a prior Era.  After it's unvailing the
script changed very little or not at all for
over  thaousand years this says to me the
governing body was maintaining the Indus
script and they were Brahmans or Priests
or one who has divine knowledge, a
Brahman , a man belonging to the 1st of
the 3 twice-born classes and of the 4
original divisions of the Hindu body, a
priest , one who knows and repeats the
Veda RV . A royal seal of Say Bhagiratha
would be written in the Brahman srotriya
aksarä style.
gAtra n. `" instrument of moving "' , a limb
or member of the body RV. AV. &c.

Here the limbs of the various images of the
Indus seals have deffernt sounds and make
a song.
gAtu  m. a song RV. ; a singer
gAtha m. a song RV.
gAyatra m. n. a song , hymn RV. VS. xi
gir 1 mfn. (1. %{gRR}) addressing ,
invoking , praising RV.

girvAhas (%{gi4r-}) mfn. one to whom
invocations are addressed , praised in song
(Indra) RV.
gItakrama m. the arrangement of a song
W. ; = %{ varNa } L.

The word sword or scimitar is Candrahasa-bhasa a conundrum of Candla-bhasa "the language of the Candla’s is a sword".  The middle sign on
the scimitar is the same as the first sign of the humped bull.
candrahAsa m. (= %{-bhAsa}) , `" moon-derider "' , a glittering scimitar Sa1h. vi , 27/28 ; Ra1van2a's sword R. vii , 16 , 43 ; N. of a prince ,
JaimBha1r. lxv-lxxv ; of a hero of Ka1lika1 Virac. xxx ; n. silver L. ; (%{A}) f. = %{-puSpA} Bhpr. ; Cocculus cordifolius L. ; N. of a Yogini1
Hcat. ; %{-tIrtha} n. N. of a Tirtha Reva1Kh Humped bull
cANDAla m. = %{caND-} (Ved. Pa1n2. 5-4 , 36 Va1rtt. 1) VS. xxx , 21 S3Br. xiv Kaus3. Mn. &c. ; the worst among (in comp. Mn. ix , 87
MBh. xii f. ; gen. Ca1n2.) ; (%{I}) f. a Can2d2a1la; the plant Lin3gini1 L. ; (with %{bhASA}) the language of the Can2d2a1las Sa1h. vi , 163.
candrabhAsa m. (= %{-hAsa}) `" moon-brilliant "' , a sword L. ; N. of a hero of Ka1lika1 Virac. xxx.
The last sign is a highbred of the citra sign as tith morning noon and night.
bhASAcitraka n. a play on words , conundrum Ba1lar.
A confusing and difficult problem or question.
A question asked for amusement, typically one with a pun in its answer; a riddle.

candrAbhAsa m. an appearance in the sky like the moon , false moon W. [388,1]
citraka m. a painter L. ; = %{-tra-kAya} MBh. vii , 1320 (%{cillaka} , C) Pan5cat. ; a kind of snake Sus3r. v , 4 , 33 ; (in alg.) ; the 8th unknown
quantity ; Plumbago zeylanica , i , 38 ; iv ; Ricinus communis L. ; N. of a son (of Vr2ishn2i or Pr2is3ni Hariv. ; of Dhr2ita-ra1sht2ra MBh. i , 2740)
; of a Na1ga L. Sch. ; (pl.) of a people , ii , 1804 ; n. a mark (only ifc. `" marked or characterised by "' TBr. i , 1 , 9 , 5 Sch..) ; a sectarial mark on
the forehead L. ; a painting Hariv. 7074 ; a particular manner of fighting (cf. %{-tra-hasta}) , 15979 (v.l. %{cakraka}) [397,3] ; N. of a wood near
the mountain Raivataka , 8952.

bha 2 (in gram.) N. of the weakest base of nouns (as opp. to %{pada} and %{aGga} q.v.) i.e. of the base before the vowel terminations except in
strong cases , before feminine suffixes , and before Taddhitas beginning with vowels or %{y} Pa1n2. 1-4 , 18 &c.

bha 4 (1. %{bhA}) m. N. of the planet Venus or its regent , (= %{zukra}) L. ; semblance , delusion , error L. ; (%{A4}) f. light or a beam of
lñlight , lustre , splendour MBh. Hariv. Var. &c. (cf. 2. %{bhA}) ; the shadow of a gnomon Su1ryas. ; appearance , resemblance , likeness (ifc. ;
cf. %{agni-bha} , %{guDa-bhA} , %{tantubha}) ; n. a star , planet , asterism , lunar añasterism or mansion (and so also the number 27 ; cf. %
{nakSatra}) , sign of the zodiac Gr2S. Su1ryas. Var. S3atr. &c.

bhA 1 cl. 2. P. (Dha1tup. xxiv , 43) %{bhA4ti} (pr. p. %{bhAt} f. %{bhAntI} or %{bhAtI} Vop. ; Pot. %{bhAyAt} TBr. ; pl. %{babhau} Mn.
MBh. &c. ; aor. %{abhAsIt} Gr. Bhat2t2. ; fut. %{bhAsya4ti} Br. &c.) , to shine , be bright or luminous RV. &c. &c. ; to shine forth , appear ,
show one's self ib. ; to be splendid or beautiful or eminent MBh. Ka1v. &c. (with %{na} , to cut a poor figure Katha1s.) ; to appear as , seem ,
look like , pass for (nom. with or without %{iva} adv. in %{vat}) MBh. Ka1v. &c. ; to be , exist W. ; to show , exhibit , manifest Bhat2t2. (v.l.):
Pass. %{bhAyate} , impers , radiance is put forth by (instr.) Bhat2t2.: Caus. %{bhApayate} ; aor. %{abIbhapat} Gr.: Desid. %{bibhAsati} ib.:
Intens. %{bAbhAyate} , %{bAbheti} , %{bAbhAti} ib. [Cf. %{bhan} , %{bhAS} , %{bhAs} ; Gk. $ Lat. {fa1ri} &c. ; Germ. {Bann} ; Eng.
&228178[750 ,3] {ban}.]

bhaGgI  curve Dhu1rtas. ; a roundabout mode of acting or speaking , circumlocution (%{-gyA} , ind. `" in an indirect manner "') Ka1vya7d. Das3.
Katha1s. &c. ; explaining L. ; mode , manner , way Vcar. ; way of dressing , fashion , toilet Ba1lar. Ra1jat. ; (ifc.) mere appearance or semblance
of Katha1s. Ra1jat. ; fraud , deception L. ; irony , wit , repartee W. ; modesty MW. ; = %{bhaGga} (with Jainas) Sarvad. ; figure , shape
Siddha7ntas3. ; a step (see %{bhakti}) ; a wave Naish.
bhaGgIbhakti f. division or separation into (a series of) waves or wave-like steps Megh.

bhaGgibhUta. (ifc.) having the appearance of , resembling Ba1lar.

bhaS cl. 1. P. (Dha1tup. xvii , 44) %{bhaSati} (ep. also A1. %{-te} ; inf. %{bhaSitum}) , to bark , growl (also fig. = rail against , reproach , revile
, with acc.) MBh. Ra1jat.
bhAS 1 cl. r. A1. (Dha1tup. xvi , 11) %{bhA4Sate} (ep. also P. %{-ti} ; pf. %{babhASe} Br. &c. ; fut. %{bhASiSyate} or %{bhASitA} Gr.:
aor. %{abhASiSi} , %{-SThAH} , %{-Sata} Bhat2t2. ; inf. %{bhASitum} Up. ; %{bhASTum} MBh. ; ind , p. %{bhASitvA} , %{-bhASya}
ib.) , to speak , talk , say , tell (with acc , of thing or person , sometimes also with acc. of thing and person) Br. &c. &c. ; to speak of or about or on
(acc.) Ka1m. ; to announce , declare Gobh. ; to call , name , describe as (with two acc.) Mn. S3rutab. ; to use or employ in speaking Nir. Sus3r. ;
Pass. %{bhASyate} (aor. %{abhASi}) , to be spoken , be addressed or spoken to MBh. Ka1v. &c.: Caus. %{bhASayati} , %{-te} (aor. %
{ababhASat} or %{abIbhaSat} Pa1n2. 7-4. 3) , to cause to speak or talk Ma1rkP. [755,3] ; to cause to speak i.e. to think , agitate , disquiet R. ;
to say , speak MBh.: Desid , %{bibhASiSate} Gr.: Intens. %{babhASyate} , %{bAbhASTi} ib. , (sometimes confounded with %{bhaS} ; cf. %
{bhaN} and %{bhAs}).
bhAs 1 cl. 1. A1. (Dha1tup. xvi , 23) / %{bhAsate} (in older language also P. %{bhA4sati} AV. &c. ; p. %{bhA4sat} RV. ; pf. %{babhAse}
MBh. ; aor. %{abhAsiSTa} Gr. ; fut. %{bhAsiSyate} , %{bhAsitA} ib.) , to shine , be bright RV. &c. &c. ; to appear (`" as "' or `" like "' nom. or
instr. of an abstract noun) , occur to the mind , be conceived or imagined become clear or evident Sa1h.
bhAs 2 n. f. (cf. 2. %{bhA}) light or ray of light , lustre , brightness RV. &c. &c. (%{bhAsAM@nidhi} [Prasan3g.] and %{bhAsAm@pati}
[Hcat.] m. `" receptacle or lord of rays of light "' , the sun) ; an image , reflection shadow MW. ; glory , splendour , majesty L. ; wish , desire L.
bhASA f. speech , language (esp. common or vernacular speech , as opp. to Vedic or in later times to Sanskr2it) Nir. Pa1n2. Mn. MBh. ; any
Pra1kr2it dialect or a partic. group of 5 of them (viz. Ma1ha1ra1sht2ri , S3auraseni , Ma1gadhi , Pra1cya1 , and Avanti , also called Pan5ca-
vidha1 Bha1sha1 ; cf. under %{prAkRta} , p. 703) Cat. ; description , definition Bhag. ; (in law) accusation , charge , complaint , plaint Dhu1rtas.
Ya1jn5. Sch. ; N. of Sarasvati L. ; (in music) of a Ra1gin2i.
Above Candrahasa-Bhasa below Bhagaratha
prAtizAkhya n. (fr. %{-zAkham}) a treatise on the peculiar euphonic combination and pronunciation of letters which
prevails in different S3a1kha1s of the Vedas (there are 4 PñPan5cat. one for the S3a1kala-s3a1kha1 of the RV. ;
two for particular S3a1kha1s of the black and white Yajur-vedas , and one for a S3akha1 of the AV. ; cf. IW. 149 ,
150) ; %{-kRt} m. the author of a PñPan5cat. Pa1n2. 8-3 , 61 Sch. ; %{-bhASya} n. N. of Uvat2a's Comm. on
10 taittirIyaprAtizAkhya n. the Pra1tis3a1khya of the TñTaittiri1yas (commented on by Tri-bha1shya-ratna).
Aksara SamÃmnÃya and Varna SamÃmnÃya

Daniel F. Salas
In Prof. TP Verma work Writing in the Vedic Age, Harappan and Asokan ,  in the writing he comments on the writing
system srotriya aksarÃ.
stotra n. praise , eulogium , a hymn of praise , ode RV. &c. &c. ; (in ritual) N. of the texts or verses which are sung (in
contradistinction to the S3astras which are recited) TS. Br. S3rS.
The hymn’s of the Rigveda were preserved within the VedaGga as the laws of euphony peculiar to the Veda. This style
srotriya aksara is separate from Varna or Varamala.
vedAGga n. `" a limb (for preserving the body) of the Veda are alluded to by Manu , who calls them , in iii , 184 ,
Pravacanas , `" expositions "'.  

Prof. TP Verma
"We have found the word srotriya for writing in literature which definitely shows that the Vedic priests had their own
system of writing and that was known only to a very selective group of people. This system continued till at least the
Gupta period. This writing was called srotriya aksarà in the drama Mudrà RÃkÃasa of ViÃkhadatta ascribed to the
Gupta period. In the first act of the drama a disciple of CÃakya hands him over a
˜mudrà (seal) of RÃksasa. This triggers a plan in latters mind to trap Malayaketu an ally of RÃkÃasa through it. He
prepares a letter in this writing of the Vedic BrÃhmaÃas (srotriya aksarÃi) and asks his disciple to get it rewritten,
because of its obscurity, in the prevalent script of his times in the hands of Ãaka adÃsa. Here CÃakya
says srotriya aksaras, though written with much effort, are of definite pronunciation (srotriyÃksarÃÃi
prayatnalikhitÃnyapi niyata-sphÃni bhavati). Here he points out two features of the srotriya system of writing: i) this was
written with much effort or care, and ii) it had definite pronunciation."

The drama’s theme is about the character of Rakshasa, in the drama two mudra’s (seals) are used.  One is a name
Rakshasa that replaces the original seal Rakshasa the word is intented to protect Malayaketu.

stotra n. praise , eulogium , a hymn of praise , ode RV.;  
Stotra singing opposed to that which is recited.
madhurAkSara mf(%{A})n. speaking or sounding sweetly , melodious , mellow (%{am} ind.) R. ; n. pl. sweet or kind
words Pan5cat.
mudrAkSara (%{-drilkS-}) n. type , print (often used in the title-pages of books).
nAmAkSara n. pl. the syllables forming a name , nñname- writing Vikr.

Prof. K. H. Dhruva
All lines of action converge to one focus, all schemes are directed to one object, namely, the conciliation of Rakshasa
From the highest to the lowest all characters consciously or unconsciously are working for the consummation of this end
even hostile elements are pressed into service and skillfully made to bung about this wished-for catastrophe.

Below in the translation of the Mudra Rakshasa by Prof. K. H. Druva, Bhagukayama reads “Rakshasa” and Malayketu
says it must be a ceremonial accompaniment and not a name.

Prof. K. H. Dhruva
Take him away and thrash him (severely) till he confesses Attendant— -I do as you bid me, sir ? - — Going out with
him and re-entering Sir ? While I was thrashing the fellow, this box with a seal dropped down from under his armpit.
Bhagukayama, looking at it — The seal on this too reads Rakshasa. Then Malayaketu says— It must be the ceremonial
accompaniment to the letter. Preserve this seal too, open the box and show it to me.

rakSAmaGgala n. a ceremony performed for protection (against evil spirits &c.) S3ak. Sus3r.
rakSaNa m. `" protector "'N. of Vishn2u MBh. ; (%{A}) f. guarding , protection S3ak. (v.l.) Pan5car. ; (%{I}) f. a rein
, bridle L. ; Ficus Heterophylla L. ; (%{ra4-}) n. the act of guarding , watching , protecting , tending (of cattle) ,
preservation (`" of "' gen. loc. or comp.) Mn. MBh. &c. ; a ceremony performed for protection or preservation
Ma1rkP. [860,1]

Prof. TP Verma
"Indra undertook the job and systematically analysed and standardized it. The help of VÃyu in the process clearly
indicates that the language was phonetically analysed. In this process, first the spoken phrases might have been analysed
into words then these words would have broken into smallest units which were called aksarasâ (i.e. non-destructible) or,
phonetically further division of which is not possible. These, later on, were given the
name varÃna (the coloured ones) when the process of writing with ink came into vogue. The whole alphabet was
collectively called Aksara SamÃmnÃya and Varà SamÃmnÃya (or, VarÃamÃlÃ). The initial varÃa was âa. The
TaittirÃya PrÃtiÃÃkhya defines âvarÃaâ as â. That describe and pronounced are varÃa beginning from âaâ. Thus the
concept of varÃamÃlÃ, with vowels and consonants came into existence where every
consonant was supplied with the initial vowel âaâ because a âvarÃaâ could not be uttered without the help of a vowel;
and was the initial vowel, other varÃas are its extension or vikriti. This is the most scientific arrangement that has come
to us without much modification since millennia. The vedÃGga called â˜ÃikÃà and PrÃtiçÃkhyas are devoted to the
phonetic analysis where the place of the origin of each individual âaksaraâ in the mouth was determined. It is to be noted
that in the process of speech the tongue played vital role" .
aksarasâ non-destructible

Raksasa protection part of the VedaGga sixth part “Kalpa” ceremonial rules.
kalpa 1 mf(%{A})n. (%{klRp}) , practicable , feasible , possible S3Br. ii , 4 , 3 , 3 ; proper , fit , able , competent ,
equal tom.; a sacred precept , law , rule , ordinance (= %{vidhi} , %{nyAya}) , manner of acting , proceeding ,
practice (esp. that prescribed by the Vedas) RV. ix , 9 , 7 AV. viii , 9 , 10 ; xx , 128 , 6-11 MBh. ;, a rule to be
observed before any other rule , first duty Mn. iii , 147 MBh. &c. ; %{etena@kalpena} , in this way ; cf. %{pazu-k-} ,
&c.) ; the most complete of the six Veda1n3gas (that which prescribes the ritual and gives rules for ceremonial or
sacrificial acts) Mun2d2Up. Pa1n2. &c. ;
The word aksarasa becomes writing, Aksa the eye then Adhy-aksa perceptible to the senses , observable, these is than
expanded as measurable weight’s and units of time used for vocalization  From here Ksana an instat of time as a
measurement of lenths of defferent pronounceations. akSa  a die for gambling ; a cube ;a weight called %{karSa} ,
equal to 16 ma1shas akSamAtra n. anything as big as dice ; the twinkling of an eye , a moment (cf. 4. %{akSa}) L.
mAtRkA f. a mother (also fig. = source , origin) Ka1v. Katha1s. Pur. ; a divine mother (cf. under %{mAtR}) RTL. 188
;the 14 vowels with Anusva1ra and Visarga were originally so called after the 16 divñdivine unmusical.
16  vowels + Anusvara and Visarga.
16  mashas = a “aksa”

aksarasâ non-destructible   “a” -non + destruction = ksarasa
akSarasamAmnAya m. alphabet Pat. BhP. 2
AkSarasamAmnAyika mfn. (fr. %{akS-@-mnAya} , q.v.) belonging to the alphabet (as a letter) Pat. [128,3] 3
akSarasaMsthAna n. scripture , writing L.
adhyakSa mf(%{A})n. perceptible to the senses , observable ; exercising supervision ; m. an eye-witness ; an inspector
, superintendent ; the plant Mimusops Kauki (%{kSIrikA}). 2
akSa 4 n. [only ifc. (f. %{I}) for %{akSi}] , the eye. 3
akSamAtra n. anything as big as dice ; the twinkling of an eye , a moment (cf. 4. %{akSa}) L.
AkS to pass through , penetrate , embrace L. ; to accumulate (to from the cube?) L.:
akSa 1 m. an axle , axis (in this sense also n. L.) ; a wheel , car , cart ; N. of a measure (= 104 an3gula) ; [cf. Lat.
{axis} ; Gk. $ ; Old Germ. {ahsa} ; &634[3,1] Mod. Germ. {Achse} ; Lith. {assis}.]

kSaNa 1 m. any instantaneous point of time , instant , twinkling of an eye , moment Nal. S3ak. Ragh. &c. ; a moment
regarded as a measure of time (equal to thirty Kala1s or four minutes L. ; or (in astron.) to 48 minutes VarBr2S. &c. ;
or 4/5 or 24/35 seconds BhP. iii , 11 , 7 and 8)
Adhy-akSa mf(%{A})n. perceptible to the senses , observable ; exercising supervision ; m. an eye-witness ; an
inspector , superintendent ;

akSara mfn. imperishable ; unalterable ; m. a sword L. ; S3iva L. ; Vishn2u L. ; (%{A}) f. see %{a4kSarA} below ; (%
{am}) n. a syllable ; the syllable %{om} Mn. ; a letter [m. Ra1matUp.] ; a vowel ; a sound ; a word ; N. of Brahma ;
final beatitude religious austerity , sacrifice L. ; water RV. i , 34 , 4 and i , 164 , 42 [3,3]
akSarAGga n. part of a syllable (said of the anusva1ra) RV. Pra1t. 15
akSarAja m. `" king of dice "' , the die called Kali VS.
kSAra mf(%{A})n. (g. %{jvalA7di}) caustic , biting , corrosive , acrid , pungent , saline , converted to alkali or ashes
by distillation (fr. %{kSai}?) R. Pan5cat. BhP. &c.
ekAkSara n. the sole imperishable thing AV. v , 28 , 8 ; a single syllable Subh. ; a monosyllabic word VS. S3Br.
RPra1t. &c. ; the sacred monosyllable %{om} Mn. ii , 83 MBh. &c. ;

kArSApaNa %{as} , %{am} m. n. (g. %{ardharcA7di} ; cf. %{karS}) `" weighing a Karsha "' , a coin or weight of
different values (if of gold , = 16 Ma1shas see %{karSa} ; if of silver , = 16 Pan2as or 1280 Kowries , commonly
termed a Kaha1n ; if of copper , = 80 Raktika1s or about 176 grains ; but accord. to some = only 1 Pan2a of Kowries
or 80 Kowries) Mn. viii , 136 ; 336 ; ix , 282 ;
kSapaNa 2 mfn. ifc. (cf. %{akSa-kS-}) one who destroys , destructive BhP. ; m. N. of S3iva ; (%{am}) n. destroying
, diminishing , suppressing , expelling MBh. Sus3r. BhP. ; `" passing (as time) , waiting , pause "' , = 1. %{kSapaNa} q.
kSapaNa 1 m. `" fasting "' , a religious mendicant , Jaina (or Buddhist) mendicant L. ; N. of a Sama1dhi Ka1ran2d2. ;
akSakSapaNa m. N. of a gambler Katha1s. 4
akSAvapana n. a dice-board S3Br.

aGga 2 n. ( %{am} Un2.) , a limb of the body ; a limb , member ; the body ; a subordinate division or department ,
especially of a science , as the six Veda1n3gas ; hence the number six ; N. of the chief sacred texts of the Jainas ;

vedAGga n. `" a limb (for preserving the body) of the Veda "'N. of certain works or classes of works regarded as
auxiliary to and even in some sense as part of the Veda , (six are usually enumerated [and mostly written in the Su1tra or
aphoristic style] ; 1. %{zikSA} , `" the science of proper articulation and pronunciation "' , comprising the knowledge of
letters , accents , quantity , the use of the organs of pronunciation , and phonetics generally , but especially the laws of
euphony peculiar to the Veda [many short treatises and a chapter of the Taittiri1ya-a1ran2yaka are regarded as the
representatives of this subject ; but other works on Vedic phonetics may be included under it see %{prAtizAkhya}]: 2.
%{chandas} , `" metre "' [represented by a treatise ascribed to Pin3gala-na1ga , which , however , treats of Pra1kr2it
as well as San6skr2it metres , and includes only a few of the leading Vedic metres]: 3. %{vyAkaraNa} , `" linguistic
analysis or grammar [represented by Pa1n2ini's celebrated Su1tras]: 4. %{nirukta} , `" explanation of difficult Vedic
words "' [cf. %{yAska}]: 5. %{jyotiSa} , `" astronomy "' , or rather the Vedic calendar [represented by a small tract ,
the object of which is to fix the most auspicious days for sacrifices]: 6. %{kalpa} , `" ceremonial "' , represented by a
large number of Su1tra works [cf. %{sUtra}]: the first and second of these Veda7n3gas are said to be intended to
secure the correct reading or recitation of the Veda , the third and fourth the understanding of it , and the fifth and sixth
its proper employment at sacrifices: the Veda7n3gas are alluded to by Manu , who calls them , in iii , 184 , Pravacanas ,
`" expositions "' , a term which is said to be also applied to the Bra1hman2as) IW. 145 &c.

vidyA f. knowledge (cf. %{kAla-jAta-v-}) , science , learning , scholarship , philosophy RV. &c. &c. (according to
some there are four Vidya1s or sciences , 1. %{trayI} , the triple Veda ; 2. %{AnvIkSikI} , logic and metaphysics ; 3.
%{daNDa-nIti} , the science of government ; 4. %{vArttA} , practical arts , such as agriculture , commerce , medicine
&c. ; and Manu vii , 43 adds a fifth , viz. %{Atma-vidyA} , knowledge of soul or of spiritual truth ; according to others
, Vidya1 has fourteen divisions , viz. the four Vedas , the six Veda1n3gas , the Pura1n2as , the Mi1ma1n6sa1. Nya1ya
, and Dharma or law [964,1] ; or with the four Upa-vedas , eighteen divisions ; others reckon 33 and even 64 sciences
[= %{kalAs} or arts] ; Knowledge is also personified and identified with Durga1 ; she is even said to have composed
prayers and magical formulas) ; any knowledge whether true or false (with Pa1s3upatas) Sarvad. ; a spell , incantation
MBh. Ragh. Katha1s. ; magical skill MW. ; a kind of magical pill (which placed in the mouth is supposed to give the
power of ascending to heaven) W. ; Premna Spinosa L. ; a mystical N. of the letter %{i} Up. ; a small bell L. (cf. %
{vidyAmaNi}). 1.

Around 5000 years ago the Brahman srotriya aksarà style of writing emerged on the Indus Valley sealing.
Like the gotra for the Ruling KSathras of the Solar race Kakudmin ; peaked , humped bull MBh.
VarBr2S. From the Harappa Archaeological Research Project. The rarity of zebu seals is curious because the
humped bull is a recurring theme in many of the ritual and decorative arts of the Indus region, appearing on
painted pottery and as figurines long before the rise of cities and continuing on into later historical times. The zebu
bull may symbolize the leader of the herd, whose strength and virility protects the herd and ensures the
procreation of the species or it stands for a sacrificial animal. When carved in stone, the zebu bull probably
represents the most powerful clan or top officials of Mohenjo-daro and Harappa .
I have also believed the humped bull to represent the ruling class, the Sanskrit name Kakubha the royal family
from king Raivata and king Bhagiratha. Raivata of Kakudmin (the ruler of Anarta) Pur. of a mountain near Kusa-
sthali (the capital of the country Anarta) MBh. Hariv. After king Bhagiratha the Capital changes to Ayodhya,
Bhagiratha is the great-grandfather of Sagara , king of Ayodhya. Here the rulers of the Indus were from the line
of Kakudmin.

The seals are a Logosyllabic script, that is a script in which the graphemes represent morphemes,
often polysyllabic morphemes, but when extended phonetically represent single syllables thus Aksara.
The bull seal is an example of this extention.

The seal to the right is the seal found on the Kubul Manuscript. In that manuscript I believe it to represent
Bhagaratha in the Apprie hym and in the dvAdazapattraka it is Bhagavate. dvAdazapattraka n. N. of a Yoga or
partic. religious observance in which the 12 syllables %{oM@namo@bhagavate@vAsudevAya} are connected
with the 12 signs of the zodiac and with the 12 months Va1mP. Both start with Om.
This changes the fundamental direction of writing in the middle east, as the date of the seal to the right far exceed
the origins of the Aramaic script. On the seal to the left the b is the square glyph on the left and "th" the last circle
as "th".
akSa 3 n. an organ of sense ; sensual perception L. ; m. the soul L. ; knowledge , religious
knowledge L. ; a lawsuit L. ; a person born blind L. ; N. of Garud2a L. ; of a son of Ra1van2a ;
of a son of Nara , &c.

akSaNvat 1 mfn. ( %{kSan}) , not injuring A1s3vGr2.  

akSarabhAj mfn. entitled to a share in the syllables (of a prayer) AitBr.
akSarachandas n. metre regulated by the number and quality of syllables.

AkSa mfn. (fr. 1. %{a4kSa}) belonging or referring to terrestrial latitude Comm. on Su1ryas. ;
(%{am}) n. (fr. 2. %{akSa4}) = %{AkSakI} L.  

akSabhA f. shadow of latitude.

akSabhAga m. degree of latitude.

akSakarNa m. the hypotenuse , especially of the triangle formed with the gnomon of a dial and its
shadow ; (in astron.) argument of the latitude

akSa 1 m. an axle , axis (in this sense also n. L.) ; a wheel , car , cart ; the beam of a balance or
string which holds the pivot of the beam ; a snake L. ; terrestrial latitude (cf. %{-karNa} ,
%{-bhA} , %{-bhAga}) ; the collar-bone S3Br. ; the temporal bone Ya1jn5. ; N. of a measure
(= 104 an3gula) ; [cf. Lat. {axis} ; Gk. $ ; Old Germ. {ahsa} ; &634[3,1] Mod. Germ. {Achse}
; Lith. {assis}.]

IkS cl. 1. A1. %{I4kSate} , %{IkSAM-cakre} (Pa1n2. 1-3 , 63) , %{IkSiSyate} ,
%{aikSiSTa} , %{IkSitum} , to see , look , view , behold , look at , gaze at ; to watch over
(with acc. or rarely loc.) AV. AitBr. S3Br. Mn. Katha1s. &c. ; to see in one's mind , think , have
a thought S3Br. ChUp. MBh. Bhag. &c. ; to regard , consider Kum. ; to observe (the stars &c.)
VarBr2S. ; to foretell for (dat. ; lit. to observe the stars for any one) Pa1n2. 1-4 , 39: Caus.
%{IkSayati} , to make one look at (with acc.) A1s3vGr2. (This root is perhaps connected with
%{akSi} q.v.)  

ikSu m. (2. %{iS} Un2. iii , 157) , the sugar-cane AV. i , 34 , 5 Kaus3. A1s3vGr2. Mn. &c. ;
(twelve species of it are enumerated Sus3r.) ; the stem of the sugar-cane Mn. ; eyelash VS. TS.
&c. ; N. of a king VP.

akSarAkSara m. a kind of religious meditation (%{samAdhi}). Ka1ran2d2.

akSAralavaNa n. not factitious (i.e. natural) salt ; (mfn.) not composed of artificial salt ,
[Kullu1ka on] Mn. iii , 257 ; v , 73 ; xi , 109 ; or , according to Goldst. and NBD. , better `"
(food) not containing acrid substances nor salt therefore also %{akSArA7lavaNa} in the same
sense cf. %{kSAra-lavaNa}.

akSAralavaNAzin mfn. eating %{akSAra-lavaNa}.  

akSAramadyamAMsAda mfn. not eating acrid substances nor (drinking) spirituous liquors nor
eating meat VarYogay.  
Iksa is looking and aksa is the eye that is related to aksa the organ of sense, the soul, knowledge
it then became weight's and length's of both time and space, the 16 levels of weight's (same as the Indus valley
standard of weight's) then it crosses into 16 vowels.
ikSu  sugar-cane AV.
 eyelash VS. TS. &c. ; N. of a king VP.
ikSvAku [RV.] and %{i4kSvAku} [AV.]. m. N. of a man RV. x , 60 , 7 AV. xix , 39 , 9 ; of a son of Manu Vaivasvata (father of
Kukshi and first king of the solar dynasty in Ayodhya1) MBh. R.
Botany studies deferent species as the twelve species of sugar cane that are enumerated under Iksu.
That which is perceivable indestructible a-ksa the king.
akSa the axle or axis in astronomy [cf. Lat. {axis} ; Gk. $ ; Old Germ. {ahsa} ; &634[3,1] Mod. Germ. {Achse} ; Lith. {assis}.].
The axis of the ukSan an ox or bull (as impregnating the flock ; in the Veda especially as drawing the
chariot of Ushas or dawn) RV.
AV. TS. Ka1tyS3r. MBh. Kum. &c. ; medicaments (%{
RSabha}) L. ;
RSabha m. (fr. 2. %{RS} Un2. ii , 123) , a bull (as impregnating the flock ; cf. %{vRSabha} and %{ukSan}) RV. AV. VS. ChUp.
BhP. &c. ;

IkSaNa n. a look , view , aspect sight Ka1tyS3r. La1t2y. Katha1s. Pan5cat. Ratna1v. &c. ; regarding , looking after , caring for
Mn. ; eye MBh. R. Sus3r. S3ak. &c.  

ikSu m. (2. %{iS} Un2. iii , 157) , the sugar-cane AV. i , 34 , 5 Kaus3. A1s3vGr2. Mn. &c. ; (twelve species of it are enumerated
Sus3r.) ; the stem of the sugar-cane Mn. ; eyelash VS. TS. &c. ; N. of a king VP.

IkSa mf(%{I})n. ifc. seeing , looking , visiting (see %{tiryag-IkSa} , %{vadhv-IkSa}) ; (%{A}) f. sight , viewing ; considering BhP.
Nya1yad. ; (%{am}) n. anything seen S3Br. vii , 1 , 2 , 23 (merely for the etym. of %{antarikSa}).  
2 IkSamANa mfn. looking at , surveying VS. R.  
3 IkSaNa n. a look , view , aspect sight Ka1tyS3r. La1t2y. Katha1s. Pan5cat. Ratna1v. &c. ; regarding , looking after , caring for
Mn. ; eye MBh. R. Sus3r. S3ak. &c.  
4 ikSu m. (2. %{iS} Un2. iii , 157) , the sugar-cane AV. i , 34 , 5 Kaus3. A1s3vGr2. Mn. &c. ; (twelve species of it are
enumerated Sus3r.) ; the stem of the sugar-cane Mn. ; eyelash VS. TS. &c. ; N. of a king VP.
5 ikSvAku [RV.] and %{i4kSvAku} [AV.]. m. N. of a man RV. x , 60 , 7 AV. xix , 39 , 9 ; of a son of Manu Vaivasvata (father of
Kukshi and first king of the solar dynasty in Ayodhya1) MBh. R. Bhag. Hariv. VP. ; a descendant of Ikshva1ku R. Ragh. ; (some
Buddhists as well as the Jainas derive their Cakravartins and many of their Arhats from Ikshva1ku) ; (%{avas}) m. N. of a
warrior-tribe descended from Ikshva1ku VarBr2S. ; (%{us}) f. a bitter gourd ; according to some , the Coloquintida (Citrillus
Colocynthis) , the fruit of a wild species of Lagenaria Vulgaris Sus3r.